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Table 3 Prescription of drugs used for diabetes mellitus and hypertension among those with at least one such diagnosis in a group of people with intellectual disability (ID) and referents from the general population (gPop), stratified by sex

From: Prevalence and treatment of diabetes mellitus and hypertension among older adults with intellectual disability in comparison with the general population

   gPop ID ID vs gPop
n (%) n (%) RR (95% CI)
Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus    
 Insulins and analogues Women 57 (85) 65 (83) 0.98 (0.69–1.40)
Men 90 (84) 90 (87) 1.03 (0.77–1.38)
Men vs women 0.99 (0.71–1.38) 1.04 (0.76–1.43)  
 Fast-acting Women 42 (63) 30 (38) 0.61 (0.38–0.98)
Men 61 (57) 50 (48) 0.84 (0.58–1.23)
Men vs women 0.91 (0.61–1.35) 1.25 (0.80–1.97)  
 Intermediate-acting Women 24 (36) 21 (27) 0.75 (0.42–1.35)
Men 47 (44) 36 (35) 0.79 (0.51–1.22)
Men vs women 1.23 (0.75–2.01) 1.29 (0.75–2.20)  
 Intermediate/long-acting comb. fast-acting Women 22 (33) 42 (54) 1.64 (0.98–2.75)
Men 30 (28) 54 (52) 1.85 (1.19–2.89)
Men vs women 0.85 (0.49–1.48) 0.96 (0.64–1.44)  
 Long-acting Women 29 (43) 25 (32) 0.74 (0.43–1.26)
Men 36 (34) 37 (36) 1.06 (0.69–1.67)
Men vs women 0.78 (0.48–1.27) 1.11 (0.67–1.84)  
 Blood glucose lowering drugs excl. Insulins Women 40 (60) 52 (67) 1.12 (0.74–1.69)
Men 56 (52) 74 (71) 1.36 (0.96–1.92)
Men vs women 0.88 (0.58–1.32) 1.07 (0.75–1.52)  
 Biguanides Women 37 (55) 46 (59) 1.07 (0.69–1.65)
Men 54 (50) 66 (63) 1.26 (0.88–1.80)
Men vs women 0.91 (0.60–1.39) 1.08 (0.74–1.57)  
 Sulfonylureas Women 13 (19) 21 (27) 1.39 (0.70–2.77)
Men 14 (13) 34 (33) 2.50 (1.34–4.66)
Men vs women 0.67 (0.32–1.44) 1.21 (0.71–2.09)  
 Combinations Women 1 (1) 2 (3) NC
Men 3 (3) 0 (0) NC
Men vs women NC NC  
 α glucosidase inhibitors Women 2 (3) 3 (4) NC
Men 1 (1) 1 (1) NC
Men vs women NC NC  
 Thiazolidinediones Women 3 (4) 0 (0) NC
Men 2 (2) 3 (3) NC
Men vs women NC NC  
 Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors Women 3 (4) 2 (3) NC
Men 5 (5) 0 (0) NC
Men vs women NC NC  
 Repaglinide or nateglinide Women 3 (4) 4 (5) NC
Men 7 (7) 3 (3) NC
Men vs women NC NC  
 Exenatide or liraglutide Women 0 (0) 1 (1) NC
Men 1 (1) 2 (2) NC
Men vs women NC NC  
Non-insulin-dependent diabetes    
 Insulins and analogues Women 94 (51) 161 (52) 1.02 (0.79–1.32)
Men 158 (44) 177 (50) 1.14 (0.92–1.42)
Men vs women 0.87 (0.67–1.12) 0.97 (0.78–1.20)  
 Fast-acting Women 53 (28) 61 (20) 0.69 (0.48–1.00)
Men 72 (20) 75 (21) 1.06 (0.77–1.47)
Men vs women 0.70 (0.49–1.00) 1.08 (0.77–1.52)  
 Intermediate-acting Women 48 (26) 68 (22) 0.85 (0.59–1.23)
Men 83 (23) 61 (17) 0.75 (0.54–1.04)
Men vs women 0.89 (0.63–1.28) 0.79 (0.56–1.12)  
 Intermediate/long-acting comb. fast-acting Women 44 (24) 103 (33) 1.40 (0.98–1.99)
Men 70 (19) 109 (31) 1.59 (1.18–2.14)
Men vs women 0.82 (0.56–1.20) 0.93 (0.71–1.22)  
 Long-acting Women 36 (19) 40 (13) 0.67 (0.42–1.04)
Men 48 (13) 60 (17) 1.28 (0.87–1.86)
Men vs women 0.69 (0.45–1.06) 1.32 (0.89–1.97)  
 Blood glucose lowering drugs excl. Insulins Women 138 (74) 246 (79) 1.07 (0.87–1.31)
Men 285 (79) 282 (80) 1.01 (0.86–1.19)
Men vs women 1.07 (0.87–1.31) 1.01 (0.85–1.20)  
 Biguanides Women 127 (68) 225 (72) 1.06 (0.85–1.32)
Men 271 (75) 248 (70) 0.93 (0.79–1.11)
Men vs women 1.10 (0.89–1.26) 0.97 (0.81–1.16)  
 Sulfonylureas Women 51 (27) 105 (34) 1.23 (0.88–1.72)
Men 99 (28) 125 (35) 1.29 (0.99–1.68)
Men vs women 1.00 (0.72–1.41) 1.05 (0.81–1.36)  
 Combinations Women 7 (4) 7 (2) 0.60 (0.21–1.71)
Men 13 (4) 4 (1) NC
Men vs women 0.96 (0.38–2.41) NC  
 α glucosidase inhibitors Women 4 (2) 7 (2) NC
Men 2 (1) 1 (0) NC
Men vs women NC NC  
 Thiazolidinediones Women 7 (4) 7 (2) 0.60 (0.21–1.71)
Men 16 (4) 14 (4) 0.89 (0.44–1.83)
Men vs women 1.18 (0.49–2.87) 1.76 (0.71–4.37)  
 Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors Women 17 (9) 13 (4) 0.46 (0.22–0.94)
Men 25 (7) 9 (3) 0.36 (0.17–0.79)
Men vs women 0.76 (0.41–1.41) 0.61 (0.26–1.43)  
 Repaglinide or nateglinide Women 11 (6) 20 (6) 1.09 (0.52–2.27)
Men 23 (6) 16 (5) 0.71 (0.38–1.34)
Men vs women 1.08 (0.53–2.22) 0.71 (0.37–1.36)  
 Exenatide or liraglutide Women 3 (2) 5 (2) NC
Men 12 (3) 2 (1) NC
Men vs women NC NC  
Hypertension    
 Diuretics Women 307 (49) 220 (61) 1.26 (1.06–1.50)
Men 334 (39) 262 (57) 1.48 (1.26–1.74)
Men vs women 0.80 (0.68–0.93) 0.94 (0.78–1.12)  
 Beta blocking agents Women 415 (66) 216 (60) 0.91 (0.78–1.08)
Men 538 (63) 281 (62) 0.98 (0.85–1.14)
Men vs women 0.95 (0.84–1.08) 1.02 (0.86–1.22)  
Calcium channel blockers Women 317 (50) 148 (41) 0.82 (0.68–1.00)
Men 475 (55) 214 (47) 0.85 (0.72–1.00)
Men vs women 1.10 (0.95–1.27) 1.14 (0.92–1.40)  
 Agents acting on the renin-angiotensin system Women 455 (72) 223 (62) 0.86 (0.73–1.01)
Men 729 (85) 320 (70) 0.83 (0.72–0.94)
Men vs women 1.18 (1.05–1.32) 1.13 (0.95–1.34)  
 ACE inhibitors Women 319 (51) 189 (53) 1.04 (0.87–1.25)
Men 544 (63) 274 (60) 0.95 (0.82–1.10)
Men vs women 1.25 (1.09–1.44) 1.14 (0.95–1.37)  
 Angiotensin II antagonists Women 259 (41) 60 (17) 0.41 (0.31–0.54)
Men 355 (41) 85 (19) 0.45 (0.36–0.57)
Men vs women 1.01 (0.86–1.18) 1.11 (0.80–1.55)  
  1. Statistically significant results are marked in bold.
  2. RR relative risk, CI confidence interval, ID intellectual disability, gPop general population, NC not calculated due to too few observations