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Table 1 Descriptive statistics for study variables

From: Association of multiple chronic conditions and pain among older black and white adults with diabetes mellitus

Measures Total Sample
(n = 236)
African American (n = 110) Caucasian
(n = 126)
p-value
Age, mean (std) 73.40 (6.11) 72.39 (5.67) 74.28 (6.38) 0.0177
Education, mean (std) 13.44 (2.63) 12.95 (2.68) 13.87 (2.53) 0.0078
Income, mean (std) 5.01 (1.92) 4.22 (1.69) 5.70 (1.84) <0.0001
Married, n (%) 112 (47.46) 38 (34.55) 74 (58.73) .0002
Female sex, n (%) 125 (52.97) 69 (62.73) 56 (44.44) .0050
Osteoporosis, n (%) 37 (15.68) 12 (10.91) 25 (19.84) .0597
Renal or kidney disease, n (%) 29 (12.29) 13 (11.82) 16 (12.70) .8372
Stroke, n (%) 13 (5.51) 6 (5.45) 7 (5.56) .9729
Hypertension, n (%) 193 (81.78) 98 (89.09) 95 (75.40) .0066
Heart attack or myocardial infarction, n (%) 38 (16.10) 14 (12.73) 24 (19.05) .1876
Congestive heart failure, n (%) 35 (14.83) 14 (12.73) 21 (16.67) .3956
Arthritis, n (%) 170 (72.03) 78 (70.91) 92 (73.02) .7191
Pain frequency, mean (std) 2.21 (1.59) 2.22 (1.55) 2.20 (1.63) .9244
Pain severity, mean (std) 1.53 (1.14) 1.60 (1.15) 1.48 (1.14) .4074