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Table 2 Characteristics of the study subjects with or without cognitive impairment according to sex

From: Relationships between cognitive function and body composition among community-dwelling older adults: a cross-sectional study

  Males Females
Cognitive impairment   Cognitive impairment  
Yes (n = 9) No (n = 143) p-value Yes (n = 24) No (n = 144) p-value
Age (year) 80.11 ± 7.79 75.39 ± 5.09 0.038 76.29 ± 4.59 74.13 ± 4.7 0.033
BMI (kg/m2) 22.37 ± 3.87 24.18 ± 2.91 0.109 23.73 ± 3.14 25.52 ± 3.58 0.016
Height (cm) 157.97 ± 5.99 162.34 ± 6.49 0.048 145.88 ± 5.31 148.05 ± 5.63 0.049
Waist/height ratio 0.51 ± 0.07 0.54 ± 0.05 0.203 0.57 ± 0.06 0.58 ± 0.07 0.390
Body composition
 Body fat (%) 20.12 ± 7.16 25.19 ± 7.7 0.076 31.38 ± 9.06 34.46 ± 8.38 0.076
 Fat mass (kg) 14.03 ± 5.48 17.12 ± 4.88 0.082 16.97 ± 4.96 19.87 ± 5.69 0.014
 Total LBM (kg) 41.98 ± 7.15 44.05 ± 5.94 0.480 33.31 ± 5.59 34.43 ± 4.36 0.029
 Arm LBM (kg) 4.54 ± 0.98 4.99 ± 0.87 0.243 3.54 ± 0.82 3.63 ± 0.74 0.362
 Leg LBM (kg) 13.22 ± 3.00 13.87 ± 2.29 0.637 10.09 ± 1.95 10.33 ± 1.66 0.180
 Total ASM (kg) 16.65 ± 3.66 17.58 ± 2.84 0.615 12.80 ± 2.51 13.11 ± 2.13 0.255
 Arm SM (kg) 4.25 ± 0.92 4.61 ± 0.85 0.305 3.33 ± 0.76 3.39 ± 0.72 0.367
 Leg SM (kg) 12.40 ± 2.83 12.97 ± 2.15 0.665 9.48 ± 1.80 9.72 ± 1.56 0.180
 Arm BMC (kg) 0.29 ± 0.07 0.37 ± 0.28 0.018 0.21 ± 0.07 0.23 ± 0.17 0.456
 Leg BMC (kg) 0.82 ± 0.21 0.90 ± 0.16 0.195 0.61 ± 0.17 0.61 ± 0.14 0.472
SBP (mmHg) 138.67 ± 20.55 137.75 ± 15.89 0.509 140.62 ± 19.8 138.67 ± 16.24 0.702
DBP (mmHg) 75.67 ± 12.1 78.19 ± 8.86 0.392 76.92 ± 10.99 77.91 ± 7.98 0.908
Fasting glucose (mg/dL) 112.89 ± 59.47 99.9 ± 22.22 0.745 94.42 ± 16.76 99.55 ± 31.04 0.605
HbA1C (%) 5.58 ± 0.27 5.98 ± 0.93 0.195 5.77 ± 0.58 5.96 ± 0.77 0.147
Fasting insulin (μU/mL) 1.22 ± 1.13 1.52 ± 0.78 0.205 1.71 ± 0.65 1.78 ± 0.71 0.295
HOMA-IR −0.13 ± 1.31 0.1 ± 0.87 0.407 0.24 ± 0.63 0.35 ± 0.79 0.338
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 102.11 ± 19.92 111.91 ± 35.32 0.372 114.12 ± 38.78 115.95 ± 32.06 0.924
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 3.94 ± 0.24 3.84 ± 0.26 0.232 3.88 ± 0.32 3.87 ± 0.24 0.861
Triglyceride (mg/dL) 4.66 ± 0.54 4.8 ± 0.57 0.491 4.71 ± 0.67 4.87 ± 0.51 0.117
Albumin (g/dL) 4.43 ± 0.41 4.48 ± 0.36 0.606 4.33 ± 0.41 4.49 ± 0.28 0.051
hs-CRP (mg/L) 0.2 ± 0.16 0.4 ± 1.44 0.738 0.62 ± 1.62 0.16 ± 0.19 0.138
Testosterone (ng/ml) 4.79 ± 2.33 5.23 ± 1.83 0.582 0.11 ± 0.1 0.12 ± 0.13 0.903
e-GFR (mL/min/per 1.73 m2) 88.7 ± 19.58 77.88 ± 17.92 0.057 76.16 ± 23.62 86.96 ± 17.98 0.017
Adiponectin (μg/mL) 2.48 ± 0.46 2.05 ± 0.55 0.026 2.37 ± 0.51 2.33 ± 0.51 0.724
Hemoglobin (g/dL) 14.31 ± 1.5 14.4 ± 1.66 0.776 12.66 ± 1.41 13.1 ± 1.01 0.236
GGT (IU/L) 50 ± 70.17 33.07 ± 30.99 0.304 30.21 ± 40.3 23.19 ± 26.19 0.678
Uric acid (mg/dL) 4.84 ± 1.2 5.41 ± 1.49 0.275 4.29 ± 1.19 4.22 ± 1.17 0.879
Comorbidities on treatment
 Hypertension (%) 3 (33.33%) 72 (50.35%) 0.495 8 (33.33%) 82 (56.94%) 0.032
 DM (%) 2 (22.22%) 24 (16.78%) 0.652 2 (8.33%) 20 (13.89%) 0.744
 Dyslipidemia (%) 2 (22.22%) 61 (43.57%) 0.303 16 (66.67%) 91 (63.19%) 0.743
 CVA (%) 1 (11.11%) 14 (9.79%) 1.000 2 (8.33%) 9 (6.25%) 0.659
 MI (%) 0 (0.00%) 14 (9.79%) 1.000 4 (16.67%) 1 (0.69%) 0.001
Lifestyle
 Smoking (pack/year) 32.41 ± 39.12 30.14 ± 27.94 0.842 1.12 ± 5.47 0.57 ± 4 0.849
 Alcohol (g/week) 148.21 ± 238.27 153.03 ± 369.32 0.780 2.35 ± 8.68 8.87 ± 35.88 0.415
 Exercise    0.722    0.705
  < 3 times/week 7 (77.78%) 98 (68.53%)   21 (87.50%) 131 (90.97%)  
  ≥ 3 times/week 2 (22.22%) 45 (31.47%)   3 (12.50%) 13 (9.03%)  
Education    1.000    0.002
  < 6 (years) 1 (11.11%) 28 (19.58%)   21 (87.50%) 78 (54.16%)  
  ≥ 6 (years) 8 (88.89%) 115 (80.42%)   3 (12.50%) 66 (45.83%)  
GDS 15.44 ± 6.69 13.45 ± 6.91 0.394 19.38 ± 4.98 16.11 ± 7.04 0.040
  1. Abbreviations: BMC Bone mineral content, BMI Body mass index, CVA Cerebrovascular accident, DBP Diastolic blood pressure, DM Diabetes mellitus, e-GFR Estimated glomerular filtration rate, GDS Geriatric depression scale, GGT Gamma glutamyl transferase, HDL High-density lipoprotein, HOMA-IR Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, hs-CRP High-sensitivity C-reactive protein, K-MMSE Korean Mini-Mental State Examination, LBM Lean body mass, LDL Low-density lipoprotein, MI myocardial infarction, SBP Systolic blood pressure, SM Skeletal muscle mass. Adiponectin, HDL, HOMA-IR, insulin, and triglyceride were log-transformed because they were not normally distributed. The data describing comorbidities and treatments were obtained from structured questionnaires