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Table 1 General characteristics of the subjects

From: Relationships between cognitive function and body composition among community-dwelling older adults: a cross-sectional study

  Males (n = 152) Females (n = 168) p-value
Age (years) 75.67 ± 5.36 74.44 ± 4.73 0.030
BMI (kg/m2) 24.07 ± 2.99 25.26 ± 3.57 0.001
Height (cm) 162.08 ± 6.53 147.74 ± 5.62 <0.001
Waist/height ratio 0.54 ± 0.05 0.58 ± 0.07 <0.001
Body composition
 Body fat (%) 24.89 ± 7.74 34.02 ± 8.52 <0.001
 Fat mass (kg) 16.94 ± 4.95 19.46 ± 5.67 <0.001
 Total LBM (kg) 43.92 ± 6.01 34.27 ± 4.55 <0.001
 Arm LBM (kg) 4.96 ± 0.88 3.61 ± 0.75 <0.001
 Leg LBM (kg) 13.83 ± 2.33 10.29 ± 1.70 <0.001
 Total ASM (kg) 17.53 ± 2.89 13.06 ± 2.18 <0.001
 Arm SM (kg) 4.59 ± 0.86 3.38 ± 0.73 <0.001
 Leg SM (kg) 12.93 ± 2.19 9.68 ± 1.59 <0.001
 Arm BMC (kg) 0.37 ± 0.27 0.23 ± 0.16 <0.001
 Leg BMC (kg) 0.89 ± 0.17 0.61 ± 0.14 <0.001
SBP (mmHg) 137.8 ± 16.12 138.95 ± 16.74 0.535
DBP (mmHg) 78.04 ± 9.05 77.77 ± 8.44 0.781
Fasting glucose (mg/dL) 100.68 ± 25.76 98.82 ± 29.44 0.550
HbA1C (%) 5.96 ± 0.91 5.93 ± 0.75 0.798
Fasting insulin (μU/mL) 1.5 ± 0.81 1.77 ± 0.7 0.002
HOMA-IR 0.09 ± 0.9 0.34 ± 0.77 0.009
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 111.32 ± 34.62 115.69 ± 32.98 0.251
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 3.85 ± 0.26 3.87 ± 0.25 0.411
Triglyceride (mg/dL) 4.79 ± 0.56 4.85 ± 0.53 0.320
Albumin (g/dL) 4.47 ± 0.36 4.47 ± 0.31 0.923
hs-CRP (mg/L) 0.38 ± 1.4 0.22 ± 0.65 0.194
Testosterone (ng/ml) 5.2 ± 1.86 0.12 ± 0.13 <0.001
e-GFR (mL/min/per 1.73 m2) 78.54 ± 18.14 85.42 ± 19.18 0.001
Adiponectin (μg/mL) 2.08 ± 0.56 2.34 ± 0.51 <0.001
Hemoglobin (g/dL) 14.39 ± 1.65 13.04 ± 1.08 <0.001
GGT (IU/L) 34.09 ± 34.42 24.19 ± 28.59 0.006
Uric acid (mg/dL) 5.38 ± 1.48 4.23 ± 1.17 <0.001
Comorbidities on treatment
 Hypertension (%) 75 (49.34%) 90 (53.57%) 0.450
 DM (%) 26 (17.11%) 22 (13.10%) 0.316
 Dyslipidemia (%) 63 (42.28%) 107 (63.69%) <0.001
 CVA (%) 15 (9.87%) 11 (6.55%) 0.278
 MI (%) 14 (9.21%) 5 (2.98%) 0.018
Lifestyle
 Smoking (packs/year) 30.27 ± 28.56 0.65 ± 4.23 <0.001
 Alcohol (g/week) 152.74 ± 362.32 7.94 ± 33.44 <0.001
 Exercise (%)    <0.001
  < 3 times/week 105 (69.08%) 152 (90.48%)  
  3–4 times/week 14 (9.21%) 7 (4.17%)  
   > 4 times/week 33 (21.71%) 9 (5.36%)  
Education    <0.001
 0 12 (7.89%) 65 (38.69%)  
 1–5 (years) 17 (11.18%) 34 (20.24%)  
  ≥ 6 (years) 123 (80.92%) 69 (41.07%)  
GDS 13.57 ± 6.9 16.58 ± 6.87 <0.001
K-MMSE 26.6 ± 3.11 23.98 ± 5.3 <0.001
Log (31-K-MMSE) 1.25 ± 0.71 1.63 ± 0.86 <0.001
Cognitive impairmenta 9 (5.92%) 24 (14.29%) 0.014
  1. Abbreviations: BMC Bone mineral content, BMI Body mass index, CVA Cerebrovascular accident, DBP diastolic blood pressure, DM Diabetes mellitus, e-GFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, GDS geriatric depression scale, GGT gamma glutamyl transferase, HDL High-density lipoprotein, HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, hs-CRP High-sensitivity C-reactive protein, K-MMSE Korean Mini-Mental State Examination, LBM Lean body mass, LDL Low-density lipoprotein, MI Myocardial infarction, SBP systolic blood pressure, SM skeletal muscle mass. All values are means ± SDs or n (%). p-values were calculated by Student’s t-test or χ2 test. Adiponectin, HDL, HOMA-IR, insulin, triglyceride, K-MMSE were log-transformed because they were not normally distributed. The data describing comorbidities and treatments were obtained from structured questionnaires. aCognitive impairment was defined by lower than the 16th percentile using the age and education criteria