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Table 1 Characteristics of the sample, and comparisons per QoL subgroup

From: Explaining discrepancies in self-reported quality of life in frail older people: a mixed-methods study

  Sample (n = 34)   Low QoL (n = 18)   High QoL (n = 16)   Group differences
Socio-demographics
 Age (mean) (SD) 80.7 (7.3)   78.1 (6.5)   83.9 (7.0) a   *
 Females (%) (n) 61.8 21 61.1 11 62.5 10  
 Migration background (%) (n) 8.8 3 11.1 2 6.3 1  
Marital status (%) (n)
 Married 11.8 4 16.7 3 6.3 1  
 Never married 11.8 4 5.6 1 18.8 3  
 Divorced 14.7 5 27.8 5 0  
 Widowed 61.8 21 50.0 9 75.0 12  
Living arrangement (%) (n)
 Alone 67.6 23 72.2 13 62.5 10  
 With partner 11.8 4 16.7 3 6.3 1  
 With child(ren) 17.6 6 11.1 2 25.0 4  
 With others 2.9 1 0 6.3 1  
Cognition
 MoCA (mean, SD) 19.9 (4.1)   18.8 (4.4)b   21.2 (3.3)c   
Frailty (mean, SD)
 Overall 50.4 (8.6)   53.1 (8.3)   47.3 (8.3)   
 Environmental 31.3 (17.7)   26.7 (19.2)   36.6 (14.7)   
 Physical 81.3 (22.5)   82.0 (21.1)   80.5 (24.6)   
 Psychological 40.0 (22.9)   52.0 (16.2)   26.6 (19.7)   ***
 Social 52.3 (18.6)   52.9 (15.1)   51.6 (22.4)   
Quality of life
 VAS-scale (median) 6   6   9   ***
Meaning in life
 VAS-scale (mean, SD) 7.6 (1.9)   6.9 (2.1)   8.4 (1.3)   *
Mastery
 VAS-scale (median) 8   8   8.5   
  1. Note: Low QoL = ≤ 6. High QoL = ≥ 8. SD Standard Deviation, MoCA Montreal Cognitive Assessment, QoL Quality of Life, VAS Visual Analogue Scale. Cognition (MoCA): range 0–30, cut-off for Mild Cognitive Impairment is ≤ 26. Frailty (Comprehensive Frailty Assessment Instrument): range 0–100 per domain, with higher scores indicating more severe levels of frailty
  2. *p < .05. ***p < .001
  3. a n = 15. b n = 17. c n = 13