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Table 2 Absolute and relative reliability data of various outcomes obtained from different executive function tests before and after acute aerobic cycling exercise for day 1 and 2 comparison

From: Absolute and relative reliability of acute effects of aerobic exercise on executive function in seniors

   INT day 1 mean (SD) INT day 2 mean (SD) rANOVA (p-value) Effect size (ɳp2) change in mean [90% CI] SEM (Typical error) [90% CI] CoV [90% CI] ICC [90% CI]
Eriksen Flanker Test
 reaction time,  congruent [ms] pre 481 (67) 468.6 (53.6) 0.05 0.12 −9.1 [−24.2; 5.9] 27.6 [21.89; 37.78] 5.5 [4.4; 7.7] 0.81 [0.63; 0.90]
post 461 (48) 451.2 (54.1) 0.48 0.03 −9.8 [−21.7; 2.0] 21.7 [17.22; 29.73] 4.8 [3.8; 6.6] 0.83 [0.67; 0.92]
 accuracy, congruent [% correct] pre 98.5 (3.3) 99.1 (2.4) 0.45 0.03 0.0 [−0.7; 0.7] 1.2 [1.0; 1.7] 1.3 [1.0; 1.7] 0.84 [0.68; 0.92]
post 99.3 (1.2) 99.7 (0.9) 0.76 0.01 0.3 [0.0; 0.7] 0.5 [0.4; 0.7] 0.5 [0.4; 0.7] 0.77 [0.57; 0.88]
 reaction time, incongruent [ms] pre 545 (7) 536.7 (51.3) 0.38 0.04 −1.8 [−18.7; 15.2] 31.0 [24.6; 42.5] 5.3 [4.2; 7.4] 0.78 [0.58; 0.89]
post 522 (59) 514.5 (56.5) 0.31 0.05 −6.3 [−20.5; 7.9] 26.0 [20.6; 35.6] 4.9 [3.9; 6.8] 0.81 [0.63;0.90]
 accuracy, incongruent [% correct] pre 94.5 (7.8) 96.5 (4.8) 0.19 0.08 1.6 [−0.2; 3.4] 3.2 [2.6; 4.4] 3.9 [3.1; 5.4] 0.77 [0.56; 0.88]
post 96.9 (4.4) 96.9 (3.5) 0.68 0.02 0.0 [−1.3; 1.3] 2.4 [1.9; 3.3] 2.6 [2.1; 3.6] 0.66 [0.39; 0.82]
Stroop Color Test
 reaction time, compatible [ms] pre 833 (105) 775 (95) 0.002 0.38 −51 [−74; −28] 42 [33; 58] 5.0 [3.9; 6.9] 0.84 [0.68; 0.92]
post 781 (89) 744 (90) 0.04 0.16 −40 [−58; −22] 33 [26; 46] 4.4 [3.5; 6.1] 0.87 [0.75; 0.94]
 accuracy, compatible [% correct] pre 98.7 (1.4) 98.9 (1.4) 0.30 0.02 0.3 [−0.4; 0.9] 1.2 [1.0; 1.6] 1.2 [1.0; 1.7] 0.28 [−0.12; 0.58]
post 98.3 (1.7) 98.8 (1.6) 0.10 0.08 0.4 [0.0; 0.8] 0.8 [0.6; 1.1] 0.8 [0.6; 1.1] 0.80 [0.61; 0.90]
 reaction time, incompatible [ms] pre 956 (134) 889 (114) 0.01 0.25 −69 [−11; −24] 82 [65; 112] 8.7 [6.8; 12.0] 0.59 [0.28; 0.78]
post 902 (103) 882.1 (105) 0.02 0.17 −20 [−55; 15] 63 [50; 87] 6.9 [5.4; 9.5] 0.65 [0.37; 0.81]
 accuracy, incompatible [% correct] pre 97.3 (3.9) 97.8 (2.8) 0.32 0.06 0.6 [−0.4; 1.6] 1.8 [1.4; 2.5] 1.9 [1.5; 2.6] 0.73 [0.50; 0.86]
post 98.0 (2.1) 97.7 (3.2) 0.52 0.02 −0.4 [−1.7; 0.9] 2.3 [1.9; 3.2] 2.5 [2.0; 3.4] 0.25 [−0.15; 0.56]
Digit Span
 forward [completed stages] pre 6.3 (1.5) 6.1 (1.2) 0.21 0.03 −0.1 [−0.5; 0.4] 0.8 [0.7; 1.2] 14.7 [11.5; 20.6] 0.63 [0.33; 0.80]
post 6.3 (1.5) 6.2 (1.0) 0.74 0.01 −0.1 [−0.5; 0.4] 0.9 [0.7; 1.2] 16.8 [13.1; 23.7] 0.50 [0.15; 0.72]
 forward [cumulative errors] pre 3.3 (1.0) 3.0 (1.0) 0.55 0.02 −0.2 [−0.8; 0.4] 1.0 [0.8; 1.4] 36.6 [28.1; 53.3] −0.07 [−0.47; 0.31]
post 3.0 (0.9) 3.0 (0.8) 0.81 0.01 0.1 [−0.5; 0.6] 1.0 [0.8; 1.4] 39.9 [30.5; 58.4] −0.25 [−0.62; 0.14]
 backward [completed stages] pre 5.3 (2.0) 5.6 (1.3) 0.34 0.02 0.3 [−0.5; 1.0] 1.3 [1.1; 1.8] 43.3 [33.1; 63.8] 0.38 [0.00; 0.65]
post 5.4 (1.3) 5.7 (1.5) 0.35 0.03 0.2 [−0.3; 0.7] 0.9 [0.7; 1.2] 17.7 [13.8; 25.1] 0.63 [0.34; 0.81]
 backward [cumulative errors] pre 3.3 (1.2) 2.9 (0.8) 0.20 0.05 −0.4 [−1.0; 0.2] 1.2 [0.9; 1.6] 43.3 [33.1; 63.8] −0.28 [−0.64; 0.12]
post 2.9 (0.8) 3.0 (0.7) 0.60 0.01 0.1 [−0.3; 0.5] 0.8 [0.6; 1.0] 30.2 [23.3; 43.5] −0.01 [−0.42; 0.36]
Five-Point-Test
 correctly completed figures [n] pre 24.8 (6.4) 28.7 (5.3) 0.05 0.20 3.2 [1.4; 5.0] 3.2 [2.6; 4.4] 14.7 [11.5; 20.7] 0.71 [0.47; 0.85]
post 28.7 (5.0) 30.2 (4.4) 0.07 0.09 1.6 [0.2; 2.9] 2.4 [1.9; 3.3] 9.4 [7.4; 13.0] 0.75 [0.53; 0.87]
   INT day 2 mean (SD) INT day 3 mean (SD) rANOVA (p-value) Effect size (ɳp2) change in mean [90% CI] SEM (Typical error) [90% CI] CoV [90% CI] ICC [90% CI]
Eriksen Flanker Test
 reaction time, congruent [ms] pre 469 (54) 478 (78) 0.41 0.03 −1 [−14; 12] 23 [19; 32] 5.1 [4.0; 7.0] 0.89 [0.77; 0.94]
post 451 (54) 454 (45) 0.68 0.01 4 [−6; 15] 19 [15; 26] 4.2 [3.3; 5.9] 0.86 [0.73; 0.93]
 accuracy, congruent [% correct] pre 99.1 (2.4) 99.3 (1.2) 0.74 0.01 0.3 [−0.7; 1.3] 1.9 [1.5; 2.5] 1.9 [1.5; 2.7] 0.07 [−0.34; 0.42]
post 99.1 (09) 97.5 (10.6) 0.33 0.05 −2.5 [−6.9; 1.9] 8.0 [6.3; 10.9] 11.6 [9.1; 16.3] −0.12 [−0.51; 0.27]
 reaction time, incongruent [ms] pre 537 (51) 520 (46) 0.02 0.19 −16 [−27; −6] 20 [15; 27] 3.9 [3.1; 5.4] 0.85 [0.71; 0.93]
post 514 (56) 510 (55) 0.22 0.07 −6 [−14; 3] 15 [12; 21] 3.0 [2.3; 4.1] 0.93 [0.86; 0.97]
 accuracy, incongruent [% correct] pre 96.5 (4.8) 98.0 (3.9) 0.16 0.09 1.5 [−0.4; 3.4] 3.4 [2.7; 4.7] 3.9 [3.1; 5.3] 0.04 [0.04; 0.67]
post 96.9 (3.5) 96.0 (10.5) 0.72 0.01 −1.3 [−6.0; 3.4] 8.5 [6.8; 11.7] 12.2 [9.5; 17.1] −0.19 [−0.58; 0.20]
Stroop Color Test
 reaction time, compatible [ms] pre 775 (95) 759 (81) 0.20 0.08 −23 [−44; −3] 37 [29; 51] 4.6 [3.7; 6.4] 0.84 [0.68; 0.92]
post 744 (91) 730 (86) 0.16 0.09 −13 [−31; 4] 32 [25; 44] 4.3 [3.4; 6.0] 0.88 [0.76; 0.94]
 accuracy, compatible [% correct] pre 98.9 (1.4) 98.1 (1.7) 0.03 0.22 −0.7 [−1.2; −0.1] 1.0 [0.8; 1.4] 1.1 [0.8; 1.4] 0.59 [0.28; 0.78]
post 98.8 (1.6) 99.3 (0.8) 0.05 0.17 0.5 [0.1; 1.0] 0.8 [0.6; 1.1] 0.8 [0.7; 1.2] 0.64 [0.35; 0.81]
 reaction time, incompatible [ms] pre 888 (114) 868 (103) 0.27 0.06 −17 [−47.6; 14.1] 56.4 [44.8; 77.3] 6.4 [5.0; 8.8] 0.75 [0.53; 0.87]
post 882 (105) 870 (107) 0.47 0.03 −20 [−47; 7] 50 [39; 67] 5.6 [4.4; 7.7] 0.80 [0.61; 0.90]
 accuracy, incompatible [% correct] pre 97.8 (2.8) 98.4 (1.9) 0.23 0.07 0.7 [−0.3; 1.6] 1.7 [1.4; 2.4] 1.8 [1.5; 2.5] 0.49 [0.14; 0.72]
post 97.7 (3.2) 98.1 (1.3) 0.54 0.02 0.5 [−0.7; 1.6] 2.1 [1.6; 2.8] 2.2 [1.7; 3.0] 0.29 [−0.11; 0.58]
Digit Span
 forward [completed stages] pre 6.1 (1.2) 6.3 (0.95) 0.35 0.04 0.3 [−0.1; 0.7] 0.8 [0.6; 1.1] 13.4 [10.5; 18.8] 0.47 [0.11; 0.70]
post 6.2 (1.0) 6.1 (1.2) 0.82 0.00 0.1 [−0.3; 0.4] 0.6 [0.5; 0.9] 10.8 [8.5; 15.0] 0.67 [0.40; 0.83]
 forward [cumulative errors] pre 3.0 (1.0) 3.1 (1.0) 0.63 0.01 0.2 [−0.4; 0.7] 1.0 [0.8; 1.3] 38.3 [29.3; 55.9] 0.05 [−0.36; 0.41]
post 3.0 (0.8) 2.9 (0.8) 0.53 0.02 0.0 [−0.4; 0.4] 0.7 [0.5; 0.9] 24.0 [18.6; 34.2] 0.40 [0.02; 0.66]
 backward [completed stages] pre 5.6 (1.3) 5.5 (1.6) 0.70 0.01 −0.2 [−0.6; 0.3] 0.8 [0.6; 1.1] 15.7 [12.3; 22.2] 0.71 [0.47; 0.85]
post 5.7 (1.5) 6.0 (1.6) 0.35 0.04 0.4 [−0.1; 0.8] 0.8 [0.6; 1.1] 15.7 [12.3; 22.1] 0.76 [0.55; 0.88]
 backward [cumulative errors] pre 2.9 (0.8) 3.0 (0.8) 0.64 0.01 0.1 [−0.5; 0.7] 1.0 [0.8; 1.4] 38.8 [29.7; 56.7] −0.47 [−0.79;-0.08]
post 3.0 (0.7) 3.3 (0.9) 0.15 0.10 0.3 [−0.1; 0.7] 0.7 [0.6; 1.0] 26.6 [20.6; 38.2] 0.17 [−0.24; 0.50]
Five-Point-Test
 correctly completed figures [n] pre 28.7 (5.3) 29.0 (5.8) 0.70 0.01 0.2 [−1.3; 1.7] 2.7 [2.2; 3.7] 10.9 [8.6; 15.3] 0.78 [0.57; 0.89]
post 30.2 (4.4) 31.3 (4.4) 0.03 0.20 0.9 [0.0; 1.7] 1.5 [1.2; 2.0] 5.4 [4.3; 7.5] 0.89 [0.79; 0.95]