Skip to main content

Table 3 Characteristics of vitamin D supplement users according to the dosage

From: Vitamin D supplementation as a potential cause of U-shaped associations between vitamin D levels and negative health outcomes: a decision tree analysis for risk of frailty

  N = 86 1–400 IU/day (n = 27) 401–800 IU/day (n = 38) 801+ IU/day (n = 21) p value
Frailty Index 0.43 ± 0.11 0.45 ± 0.11 0.40 ± 0.09 0.43 ± 0.12 0.59
Frailty (FI > =0.25) 84 (97.7%) 25 (92.6%) 38 (100.0%) 21 (100.0%) 0.11
25 (OH) D (ng/mL) 26.6 ± 9.3 22.9 ± 8.6 26.8 ± 8.4 30.9 ± 10.2 0.003
Vitamin D deficiency 19 (22.1%) 9 (33.3%) 7 (18.4%) 3 (14.3%) 0.10
Age 79.0 ± 11.7 79.7 ± 9.5 80.9 ± 11.1 74.7 ± 14.6 0.17
Body mass index 25.1 ± 6.0 23.9 ± 4.7 24.7 ± 5.8 27.5 ± 7.5 0.05
Education (year) 13.0 ± 2.4 13.1 ± 1.8 12.7 ± 2.7 13.4 ± 2.7 0.72
Ethnicity
 White 41 (47.7%) 13 (48.1%) 22 (59.5%) 6 (28.6%) 0.28
 Asian/PI 41 (47.7%) 13 (48.1%) 14 (37.8%) 14 (66.7%)  
 Others 3 (3.5%) 1 (3.7%) 1 (2.7%) 1 (4.8%)  
Reason for admission
 Rehabilitation 26 (30.2%) 13 (48.1%) 8 (21.1%) 5 (23.8%) 0.11
 Skilled-nursing care 7 (8.1%) 0 (0.0%) 5 (13.2%) 2 (9.5%)  
 Intermediate care 4 (4.7%) 2 (7.4%) 2 (5.3%) 0 (0.0%)  
 Respite 49 (57.0%) 12 (44.4%) 23 (60.5%) 14 (66.7%)  
Place veterans came from
 Home 54 (62.8%) 12 (44.4%) 26 (68.4%) 16 (76.2%) 0.06
 Acute care 28 (32.6%) 14 (51.9%) 11 (28.9%) 3 (14.3%)  
 other nursing home 4 (4.7%) 1 (3.7%) 1 (2.6%) 2 (9.5%)  
Smoking
 Never 27 (31.4%) 6 (22.2%) 14 (36.8%) 7 (33.3%) 0.75
 Past 49 (57.0%) 18 (66.7%) 20 (52.6%) 11 (57.0%)  
 Current 10 (11.6%) 3 (11.1%) 4 (10.5%) 3 (14.3%)  
Alcohol
 Never 39 (45.3%) 11 (40.7%) 18 (47.4%) 10 (47.6%) 0.82
 Past 30 (34.9%) 11 (40.7%) 11 (28.9%) 8 (38.1%)  
 Current 17 (19.8%) 5 (18.5%) 9 (23.7%) 3 (14.3%)  
  1. One-way ANOVA for continuous variables (p for trend) and chi-square test for categorical variables. mean ± standard deviation, n (%)