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Table 2 Univariate and age-adjusted logistic regression models for frailty

From: Vitamin D supplementation as a potential cause of U-shaped associations between vitamin D levels and negative health outcomes: a decision tree analysis for risk of frailty

  Unadjusted   Age-adjusted  
Factors Odds Ratio (95% CI) p value Odds Ratio (95% CI) p value
Three groups by CART analysis
 Non-user with high 25 (OH) D 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref)
 Non-user with low 25 (OH) D 3.11 (1.11–8.72) 0.03 4.28 (1.44–12.68) 0.009
 Supplement user 13.05 (2.98–57.25) 0.001 9.90 (2.18–44.86) 0.003
25 (OH) D (ng/mL) 0.98 (0.95–1.02) 0.39
Age (years) 1.06 (1.03–1.10) <0.001
Body mass index 1.01 (0.95–1.07) 0.84
Education (year) 0.90 (0.76–1.08) 0.26
Ethnicity
 White 1.0 (ref)
 Asian/PI 2.13 (0.92–4.92) 0.08
 Others 3.51 (0.44–27.87) 0.24
Smoking
 Never 1.0 (ref)
 Past 1.59 (0.68–3.74) 0.29
 Current 0.94 (0.32–2.73) 0.91
Alcohol
 Never 1.0 (ref)
 Past 1.12 (0.45–2.81) 0.81
 Current 0.70 (0.27–1.78) 0.45
  1. 25 (OH) D 25-hydroxyvitamin D level, 95% CI 95% confidence interval, CART Classification and regression tree