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Table 3 Association of classic cardiovascular risk factors and mortality stratified by the presence of frailty (n = 541)

From: Association between traditional cardiovascular risk factors and mortality in the oldest old: untangling the role of frailty

  Robust
(n = 361)
Fraila
(n = 180)
  HR (95% CI) P value HR (95% CI) P value
All-cause mortality, n a (%) 114 (32)   110 (61)  
Current/prior smoking 1.3 (0.77–2.1) 0.35 1.2 (0.75–1.8) 0.50
BMI, per kg/m2 1.01 (0.96–1.05) 0.82 0.98 (0.94–1.01) 0.22
Total cholesterol, per 10 mg/dL 0.98 (0.94–1.02) 0.38 0.99 (0.94–1.03) 0.55
HDL-C, per 10 mg/dL 0.85 (0.74–0.99) 0.030 0.95 (0.84–1.08) 0.46
LDL-C, per 10 mg/dL 0.98 (0.93–1.04) 0.52 1.0 (0.95–1.05) 0.94
History of hypertension 1.6 (1.01–2.4) 0.047 1.2 (0.78–1.9) 0.39
History of diabetes 1.5 (0.97–2.3) 0.069 0.75 (0.44–1.3) 0.31
Systolic BP, per 10 mmHg higher 1.0 (0.91–1.1) 0.99 0.96 (0.88–1.1) 0.44
Diastolic BP, per 10 mmHg higher 1.05 (0.87–1.3) 0.60 0.89 (0.73–1.1) 0.27
Cardiovascular disease 1.7 (1.1–2.5) 0.011 1.07 (0.72–1.6) 0.74
Cardiovascular mortality, n a (%) 51 (14)   45 (25)  
Current/prior smoking 1.4 (0.62–3.0) 0.44 0.90 (0.45–1.8) 0.78
BMI, per kg/m2 0.98 (0.92–1.05) 0.60 1.0 (0.95–1.06) 0.94
Total cholesterol, per 10 mg/dL 1.0 (0.94–1.07) 0.98 0.96 (0.89–1.03) 0.24
HDL-C, per 10 mg/dL 0.86 (0.70–1.07) 0.17 0.90 (0.73–1.1) 0.30
LDL-C, per 10 mg/dL 1.01 (0.93–1.09) 0.87 0.96 (0.88–1.05) 0.39
History of hypertension 1.6 (0.82–3.2) 0.16 0.97 (0.51–1.8) 0.91
History of diabetes 1.5 (0.79–2.8) 0.21 0.93 (0.41–2.1) 0.87
Systolic BP, per 10 mmHg higher 0.96 (0.83–1.1) 0.61 0.99 (0.86–1.1) 0.88
Diastolic BP, per 10 mmHg higher 1.1 (0.82–1.5) 0.49 0.89 (0.65–1.2) 0.47
Cardiovascular disease 2.2 (1.2–3.9) 0.010 1.3 (0.71–2.5) 0.38
  1. All presented HRs were only adjusted for gender, age and level of education, the HRs in the table were not adjusted for the presence of other cardiovascular risk factors
  2. Abbreviations: HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, BMI body mass index, HDL-C high density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low density lipoprotein cholesterol, BP blood pressure
  3. aObserved number of deaths after 5 years of follow-up