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Table 2 The association of classic cardiovascular risk factors and mortality in the total population and stratified by the presence of cardiovascular morbidity (n = 566)

From: Association between traditional cardiovascular risk factors and mortality in the oldest old: untangling the role of frailty

  Total population
(n = 566)
No cardiovascular disease
(n = 286)
Cardiovascular disease
(n = 280)
  HR (95% CI) P value HR (95% CI) P value HR (95% CI) P value
All-cause mortality, n a (%) 241 (43)   102 (36)   139 (50)  
Current/prior smoking 1.3 (0.94–1.8) 0.12 1.3 (0.76–2.2) 0.34 1.3 (0.84–1.9) 0.26
BMI, per kg/m2 0.99 (0.96–1.0) 0.45 0.96 (0.92–1.004) 0.076 1.01 (0.97–1.05) 0.57
Total cholesterol, per 10 mg/dL 0.99 (0.96–1.02) 0.48 0.999 (0.95–1.05) 0.95 1.001 (0.96–1.04) 0.96
HDL-C, per 10 mg/dL 0.89 (0.81–0.98) 0.020 0.94 (0.82–1.08) 0.37 0.90 (0.79–1.04) 0.14
LDL-C, per 10 mg/dL 1.0 (0.96–1.03) 0.77 0.996 (0.94–1.06) 0.90 1.02 (0.97–1.06) 0.54
History of hypertension 1.2 (0.91–1.6) 0.18 1.0 (0.66–1.7) 0.85 1.2 (0.80–1.7) 0.41
History of diabetes 1.1 (0.84–1.6) 0.40 1.2 (0.70–2.0) 0.54 1.1 (0.75–1.7) 0.59
Systolic BP, per 10 mmHg higher 0.97 (0.91–1.03) 0.34 0.90 (0.81–1.01) 0.062 1.01 (0.93–1.1) 0.78
Diastolic BP, per 10 mmHg higher 0.96 (0.84–1.1) 0.57 1.05 (0.85–1.3) 0.68 0.91 (0.77–1.08) 0.30
Cardiovascular mortality, n a (%) 104 (18)   40 (14)   64 (23)  
Current/prior smoking 1.2 (0.72–2.0) 0.47 0.61 (0.22–1.7) 0.34 1.5 (0.79–2.7) 0.23
BMI, per kg/m2 1.0 (0.96–1.05) 0.90 0.99 (0.93–1.06) 0.71 1.01 (0.96–1.07) 0.69
Total cholesterol, per 10 mg/dL 0.99 (0.94–1.03) 0.57 0.995 (0.92–1.07) 0.91 1.01 (0.95–1.07) 0.84
HDL-C, per 10 mg/dL 0.87 (0.76–1.01) 0.067 0.96 (0.77–1.2) 0.70 0.87 (0.70–1.07) 0.17
LDL-C, per 10 mg/dL 0.99 (0.94–1.05) 0.73 0.97 (0.89–1.07) 0.55 1.03 (0.96–1.1) 0.45
History of hypertension 1.2 (0.77–1.8) 0.45 0.81 (0.40–1.6) 0.54 1.3 (0.74–2.4) 0.35
History of diabetes 1.3 (0.81–2.1) 0.27 1.2 (0.52–2.7) 0.71 1.3 (0.75–2.4) 0.32
Systolic BP, per 10 mmHg higher 0.96 (0.87–1.06) 0.44 0.92 (0.78–1.08) 0.31 1.003 (0.88–1.1) 0.96
Diastolic BP, per 10 mmHg higher 0.95 (0.77–1.2) 0.59 1.1 (0.81–1.6) 0.47 0.87 (0.67–1.1) 0.26
  1. All HR were adjusted for gender, age and level of education
  2. Abbreviations: HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, BMI body mass index, HDL-C high density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low density lipoprotein cholesterol, BP blood pressure
  3. aObserved number of deaths after 5 years of follow-up