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Table 1 Characteristics of BELFRAIL participants stratified by the presence of frailty (n = 541)

From: Association between traditional cardiovascular risk factors and mortality in the oldest old: untangling the role of frailty

  Robust
(n = 361)
Frail
(n = 180)
P value
Age, mean (SD), y 84 ± 3.4 86 ± 3.9 <0.001
Male, % 155 (43) 47 (26) <0.001
<High school education, % 120 (33) 80 (45) 0.009
Current/prior smoking, % 116 (32) 53 (30) 0.54
BMI, mean (SD), kg/m2 28 ± 4.2 27 ± 6.0 0.60
Total cholesterol, mean (SD), mg/dL 200 ± 45 203 ± 44 0.53
HDL-C, mean (SD), mg/dL 56 ± 15 54 ± 16 0.26
LDL-C, mean (SD), mg/dL 123 ± 37 123 ± 36 0.91
eGFR, mean (SD), mL/min/1.73 m2 65 ± 21 60 ± 24 0.018
History of hypertension, % 254 (71) 127 (71) 0.93
History of diabetes, % 66 (18) 35 (20) 0.73
Cardiovascular disease, % 167 (46) 101 (56) 0.026
 Minor cardiovascular disease, % 107 (30) 74 (41) 0.007
  Angina pectoris, % 52 (15) 37 (21) 0.069
  TIA, % 31 (8.8) 24 (14) 0.085
  Peripheral arterial disease, % 28 (7.8) 21 (12) 0.13
  History of decompensated HF, % 34 (9.5) 24 (13) 0.17
 Major cardiovascular disease, % 117 (32) 71 (40) 0.096
  Myocardial infarctiona, % 78 (22) 40 (22) 0.87
  Stroke, % 23 (6.5) 23 (13) 0.013
  PTCA or stent, % 32 (8.9) 14 (7.9) 0.70
  Coronary surgery, % 27 (7.5) 8 (4.5) 0.18
  Arterial surgery, % 15 (4.2) 12 (6.8) 0.20
Antihypertensive medication use, % 285 (79) 152 (85) 0.11
Cholesterol lowering medication use, % 121 (34) 50 (28) 0.18
Systolic BP, mean (SD), mmHg 142 ± 20 140 ± 21 0.25
Diastolic BP, mean (SD), mmHg 75 ± 9.5 75 ± 9.2 0.66
  1. Abbreviations: SD standard deviation, BMI body mass index, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate (MDRD formula), TIA transient ischaemic attack, HF heart failure, PTCA percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, BP blood pressure
  2. aaccording to the GP or positive ECG (Minnesota Code 1–1 or 1–2 (excluding 1–2-8))