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Table 3 Recent HGS protocols proposed

From: Differences in handgrip strength protocols to identify sarcopenia and frailty - a systematic review

  ASHT protocol – 2015 [26] Southampton protocol – 2011 [27]
Posture Subject seated in a chair without arm rests, with feet fully resting on the floor, hips as far back in the chair as possible, and the hips and knees positioned at approximately 90° Subject seated (same chair for every measurement)
Arm position   Forearms rested on the arms of the chair
 -Shoulder Adducted and neutrally rotated
 -Elbow Flexed to 90°, the forearm should be in midprone (neutral)
 -Wrist Between 15 and 30° of extension (dorsiflexion) and 0–15° of ulnar deviation Just over the end of the arm of the chair, in a neutral position, thumb facing upwards
Trials Three trials Three trials on each side, alternating sides (start with the right hand)
 -Model Jamar dynamometer Jamar hydraulic hand dynamometer
 -Calibration Yes
 -Handle position 2nd Thumb is round one side of the handle and the four fingers are around the other side
Acquisition time At least 3 s
Rest time At least 15 s
Instructions “This test will tell me your maximum grip strength. When I say go, grip as hard as you can until I say stop. Before each trial, I will ask you ‘Are you ready?’ and then tell you ‘Go’. Stop immediately if you experience any unusual pain or discomfort at any point during testing. Do you have any questions? Are you ready? Go!”. “Harder... harder... harder...Relax” ‘I want you to squeeze as hard as you can for as long as you can until I say stop. Squeeze, squeeze, squeeze, stop’ (when the needle stops rising)
HGS analysis Mean of three trials Maximal grip score from all six trials