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Table 1 Details and HGS protocols of the studies that diagnose sarcopenia, included in this systematic review

From: Differences in handgrip strength protocols to identify sarcopenia and frailty - a systematic review

Study details Author Sample Size Age Dynamometer Repetitions Hand Posture Shoulder position Elbow position Wrist position Handle position Encouragement Acquisition time Rest time HGS analysis Cut-off values
Cross-sectional study
Toulouse and Lyon, France
Abellan van Kan et al. [52] Community-dwelling older women from the EPIDOS cohort 3025 ≥75 Martin vigorimeter, Medizin Tecnik, Tuttlingen, Germany 3 Dominant Standing upright Adducted 180° Adjusted to a comfortable position Higher value Lowest 25%
Cross-sectional study
Turkey
Akin et al. [53] Community-dwelling older adults from KEHES Study 879 ≥60 Takei TKK
5401 digital handgrip dynamometer, Takei, Niigata-City, Japan
3 Dominant Standing upright Adducted 90° Higher value Fried’s criteria*
Cross-sectional study
S. Paulo, Brazil
Alexandre Tda et al. [54] Older urban population from the SABE Study 1149 ≥60 Takei Kiki Kogyo TK 1201, Tokyo, Japan 2 Dominant Sitting position Resting on the table (forearms too) Palms facing up Adjusted to a comfortable position 1 min Higher value M: <30 kgf
W: <20 kgf
Cross-sectional study
Milan, Italy
Barichella et al. [55] Consecutive patients from a specialised tertiary care center 364 ≥65 DynEx digital hand dynamometer, Akern/MD Systems, Florence, Italy 3 Dominant Sitting position Adducted and neutrally rotated 90°
Forearm neutral
Neutral Mean value M: <30 kgf
W: <20 kgf
Cross-sectional study
The Netherlands
Bastiaanse et al. [56] (a) Adults with intellectual disabilities from the HA-ID study 884 ≥50 Jamar hand dynamometer, Sammons Preston Rolyan, USA 6 Both Sitting position Adducted and neutrally rotated 90°
Forearm neutral
Neutral 2nd 1 min Higher value M: <30 kgf
W: <20 kgf
Cross-sectional study
Liège, Belgium
Beaudart et al. [57] (d) Consecutive outpatients from an osteoporotic and geriatric department of a clinic and community-dwelling older adults 250 ≥65 Hydraulic and pneumatic dynamometer Saehan Corporation, MSD Europe, Bvba, Belgium
(calibrated)
6 Both Sitting position Forearms resting on the arms of the chair Neutral position, over the end of the arm of the chair, thumb facing upwards Adjusted so that the thumb is round one side of the handle and the four fingers are around the other side Yes Higher value M: <30 kgf
W: <20 kgf
Cross-sectional study
Liège, Belgium
Beaudart et al. [58] (d) Community-dwelling older adults from the SarcoPhAge study 534 ≥65 Hydraulic dynamometer Saehan Corporation, MSD Europe, Bvba, Belgium
(calibrated)
6 Both Sitting position Forearms resting on the arms of the chair Neutral position, over the end of the arm of the chair, thumb facing upwards Adjusted so that the thumb is round one side of the handle and the four fingers are around the other side Yes Higher value M: <30 kgf
W: <20 kgf
Cross-sectional study
The Netherlands
Bijlsma et al. [59] Young and healthy older Europeans from the Leiden Longevity Study 654 38–82 Jamar hand dynamometer, Sammons Preston Inc., Bolingbrook, IL, USA 3 Dominant Standing upright Abducted 180° Adjusted to hand size
(middle phalanx rested on the inner handle)
Higher value M: <30.3 kgf
W: <19.3 kgf
Cross-sectional study
Leiden, The Netherlands; Jyvaskyla, Finland; Tartu, Estonia; Paris, France and Manchester, United Kingdom (UK)
Bijlsma et al. [60] Middle to older participants from the MYOAGE study 452 18–30/ 69–81 Jamar hand dynamometer, Sammons Preston, Inc., Bolingbrook, IL, USA 6 Both Standing upright Abducted 180° Adjusted to hand size Higher value **
Cross-sectional study
Guelph, Ontario, Canada
Campbell et al. [61] Assisted-living older adults 40 ≥65 Vernier digital hand dynamometer and collected using LoggerPro software, Vernier, OR, USA; 60 Hz 6 Both Sitting position Adducted 90° Dynamometer vertical Yes Self-selected pace Higher value M: <30 kgf
W: <20 kgf
Prospective cohort study
Northern Italy
Cerri et al. [62] Consecutively admitted older inpatients of an Acute Geriatric Clinic, S. Gerardo University Hospital 103 ≥65 Jamar hand dynamometer 3 Dominant Sitting position Adducted 90°
Forearm neutral
Between 0 and 30° extension 1 min Higher value M: <30 kgf
W: <20 kgf
Cross-sectional study
Madrid and Barcelona, Spain
Cuesta et al. [63] (a) Geriatric outpatients from the ELLI study 298 ≥70 Jamar hand dynamometer 3 Dominant Sitting position Adducted and neutrally rotated 90°
Forearm neutral
Neutral 2nd 1 min Higher value M: <30 kgf
W: <20 kgf
Cross-sectional study
Midwestern United States of America (USA)
Fukuda et al. [64] Caucasian ambulatory individuals 107 65–89 DHS-176 digital handgrip dynamometer, Detecto, Webb City, MO 3 Dominant Standing upright Adducted 90° 3 to 5 s Mean value **
Cross-sectional study
Spain
Garatachea et al. [65] Caucasian community-dwelling older adults from two geriatric nursing homes 81 71–93 Smedley digital hand dynamometer, Sportstek,VIC, Australia 3 Non-dominant Standing upright Abducted 180° Adjusted to hand size 30 to 60 s Higher value **
Prospective cohort study
Spain
Gonzalez-Montalvo et al. [66] Consecutive patients hospitalised for hip fracture in a public 1300-bed university hospital 509 ≥65 Jamar hydraulic dynamometer, Sammons Preston, Bolingbrook, IL, USA 3 Dominant Sitting position Forearms resting on the arms of the chair Neutral, over the end of the arm of the chair, thumb facing upwards Adjusted so that the thumb is round one side of the handle and the four fingers are around the other side Yes Higher value M: <30 kgf
W: <20 kgf
Cross-sectional study
USA
Gray et al. [67] Community-dwelling older adults 43 ≥65 Takei Scientific Instruments digital grip strength dynamometer, Niigata City,
Japan
3 Preferred hand Standing upright Arms down by the side Neutral Interphalangeal joint
of the index finger maintained at 90°
Yes Minimum of 3 s 1 min Higher value **
Cross-sectional study
Taipei, Taiwan
Han et al. [68] Healthy volunteers from the Taiwan Fitness for Seniors Study 878 ≥65 Baseline hydraulic dynamometer, Fabrication Enterprises Inc., Irvington, NY, USA 3 Dominant Adducted 90°
Forearm neutral
Higher value M: <30 kgf
W: <20 kgf
Cross-sectional study
6th district of Tehran, Iran
Hashemi et al. [69] (c) Community-dwelling individuals from the SARIR study 300 ≥55 Baseline pneumatic
squeeze bulb dynamometer, Jamar, Inc. USA: c7489–02 Rolyan
(calibrated)
6 Both Sitting position Adducted and neutrally rotated 90°
Forearm neutral
Neutral 2nd 30 s Mean value Compared with normative data from Merkies et al. [70]
Cross-sectional study
Northern Bavaria, Germany
Kemmler et al. [71] Community-dwelling German women from the FORMoSA study 1325 ≥70 Jamar hand dynamometer, Sammons Preston Inc., Bollington, USA 2 Both Standing upright Arms down by the side Adjusted to hand size Higher value W: <20 kgf
Prospective cohort study
I-Lan County, Taiwan
Lee et al. [72] Young healthy volunteers and older adults from the I-Lan Longitudinal Ageing Study 508 20–40/ ≥65 Smedley hand dynamometer, TTM, Tokyo, Japan 3 Dominant Standing upright Abducted 180° Higher value M: <22.4 kgf
W: <14.3 kgf
Cross-sectional study
Korea
Lee et al. [73] (b) Ambulatory women from the University Hospital Menopause Clinic 196 ≥65 Jamar hand dynamometer, Sammons Preston Inc., Bolingbrook, IL, USA 3 Dominant Sitting position Adducted and neutrally rotated 90°
Forearm neutral
Between 0 and 30° dorsiflexion 2nd Mean value W: <18 kgf
Cross-sectional study
Tamana, Japan
Maeda et al. [74] Patients admitted to acute phase wards from Tamana Regional Health Medical Center 224 ≥65 Smedley hand dynamometer, TTM, Tokyo, Japan 2 Dominant Standing or sitting position, depending on their ability Higher value M: <26 kgf
W: <18 kgf
Cross-sectional study
Salvador, Bahia, Brazil
Martinez et al. [75] Hospitalised elderly patients in a multi-specialty hospital 110 ≥60 Saehan hydraulic dynamometer, Saehan Corporation, 973, Yangdeok-Dong, Masan 630–728, Korea 3 Sitting position 90° 1 min Higher value M: <30 kgf
W: <20 kgf
Cross-sectional study
Guelph, Canada
McIntosh et al. [76] Community-dwelling older adults 85 ≥65 Vernier digital hand dynamometer and collected using LoggerPro software, Vernier, OR, USA; 60 Hz 6 Both Standing upright Adducted 90° Yes Higher value M: <30 kgf
W: <20 kgf
Prospective cohort study
Reykjavik, Iceland
Mijnarends et al. [77] Community-dwelling older adults from the AGES-Reykjavik Study 2309 66–93 Good Strength
software, Metitur, Finland
3 Dominant Sitting position Relaxed 90°, neutral Attached by belts to a strain-gauge system, thumb up Yes 4–5 s 30 s M: <30 kgf
W: <20 kgf
Prospective cohort study
Seongnam, Korea
Moon et al. [78] Community-dwelling older adults from the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging 297 ≥65 Jamar hydraulic hand dynamometer, Sammons Preston,
Bolingbrook, IL, USA
2 Dominant Sitting position Adducted 90°
Forearm neutral
Adjusted
to a comfortable position
1 min Mean value M: <26 kgf
W: <16 kgf
Cross-sectional study
London, Ontario, Canada
Morat et al. [79] Healthy and independent living older adults from the
Canadian Centre for Activity and Aging
24 ≥65 Smedley hand
dynamometer, TTM, Tokyo, 100 kg
6 Both Standing upright 90°
Forearm neutral
Neutral   Higher value M: <30 kgf
W: <20 kgf
Cross-sectional study
Goiâna, Brazil
Pagotto et al. [80] (b) Community-dwelling older adults 132 ≥60 CROWN hydraulic
dynamometer
2 Dominant Sitting position Adducted and neutrally rotated 90° Extended between 0 and 30° dorsiflexion 2nd 6 s 1 min Both values M: <30 kgf
W: <20 kgf
and
Fried’s criteria*
Cross-sectional study
UK
Patel et al. [81] (d) Community-dwelling older adults from the Hertfordshire Sarcopenia Study 1890 68–77 Jamar hand dynamometer 6 Both Sitting position Forearms resting on the arms of the chair Neutral, over the end of the arm of the chair, thumb facing upwards Adjusted so that the thumb is round one side of the handle and the four fingers are around the other side Yes Higher value M: <30 kgf
W: <20 kgf
Cross-sectional study
Pavia, Italy
Rondanelli et al. [82] Older adults consecutively admitted to a physical medicine and rehabilitation division, in Santa Margherita institute 159 ≥65 Jamar 5030 J1 hydraulic hand dynamometer, Sammons Preston Rolyan, Bolingbrook, IL,USA 4 Sitting position Comfortable arm position Yes 5 s 1 min Mean value of the last three efforts **
Prospective cohort study
Barcelona, Spain
Sanchez-Rodriguez et al. [83] (d) Consecutive hospitalised
patients from a postacute care geriatric unit
100 ≥70 Jamar hand dynamometer, Nottinghamshire, UK 3 Sitting position Forearms resting on the arms of the chair Neutral, over the end of the arm of the chair, thumb facing upwards Adjusted so that the thumb is round one side of the handle and the four fingers are around the other side Yes Higher value Compared with normative data from Luna-Heredia et al. [16]
Retrospective cohort study
Kuopio, Eastern Finland
Sjoblom et al. [84] Finnish postmenopausal women from the OSTPRE study 590 65–72 Pneumatic hand-held dynamometer Martin Vigorimeter, Germany 3 Sitting position Mean value Lowest 25%
Cross-sectional study
Porto, Portugal
Sousa et al. [85] (b) Hospitalised adult patients from medical and surgical wards in a general and teaching hospital 608 ≥18 Jamar hydraulic hand dynamometer, Sammons Preston, Bolingbrook, IL, USA
(calibrated)
3 Non-dominant Sitting position Adducted and neutrally rotated 90° Between 0 and 30° dorsiflexion 2nd 1 min Higher value M: <30 kgf
W: <20 kgf
Cross-sectional study
Berlin, Germany
Spira et al. [86] Community-dwelling older adults from the BASE-II study 1405 60–80 Smedley hand dynamometer, Scandidact, Denmark 6 Both Standing upright Adducted and neutrally rotated 90°
Forearm neutral
Neutral Higher value Fried’s criteria*
Cross-sectional study
Manchester, UK and Leuven, Belgium
Verschuere et al. [87] (d) Men from the European Male Ageing Study 679 40–79 Jamar hand dynamometer, TEC Inc., Clifton, NJ 6 Both Sitting position Forearms resting on the arms of the chair Neutral, over the end of the arm of the chair, thumb facing upwards Adjusted so that the thumb is round one side of the handle and the four fingers are around the other side Yes Higher value Fried’s criteria*
Multicentre cohort study
Italy
Vetrano et al. [88] Older adults admitted to acute care wards, of seven Italian hospitals, from the CRIME study 770 ≥65 North Coast hydraulic hand dynamometer, North Coast Medical Inc., Morgan Hill, CA 4 Both Sitting position or lying at 30° in bed (when unable to sit) 90° or with elbows supported Neutral Higher value M: <30 kgf
W: <20 kgf
Cohort study
Ankara, Turkey
Yalcin et al. [89] Residents in Seyranbagları Nursing Home and Rehabilitation Center 141 ≥65 Takei Scientific Instruments, Niigata, Japan 2 Dominant Abducted (30°) 180° Palm perpendicular to the shoulder line 5 s Mean value M: <30 kgf
W: <20 kgf
Cross-sectional study
Obu, Aichi, Japan
Yoshida et al. [90] Community-dwelling older adults from Obu Study of Health Promotion for the Elderly 4811 ≥65 Grip-D hand dynamometer, Takei, Niigata, Japan 1 Dominant Standing upright Single value M: <28.8 kgf
W: <18.2 kgf
Cohort study
North west regions and Western suburbs of Adelaide, Australia
Yu et al. [91] Community-dwelling individuals, from the CASA, FAMAS and NWAHS studies 1123 ≥18 Lafayette Instrument Company, IN, USA (CASA and NWAHS), Smedley, Chicago, IL (FAMAS) 3 Dominant Sitting position Arm supported by a horizontal surface Mean value M: <30 kgf
W: <20 kgf
  1. S Seconds; Min Minutes; M Men; W Women
  2. (a) Study cited the ASHT 1981 protocol
  3. (b) Study cited the ASHT 1992 protocol
  4. (c) Study cited the ASHT protocol, without specifying which protocol year was used
  5. (d) Study cited the Southampton protocol
  6. * Fried’s criteria (Cut-off points for handgrip strength) Men: ≤29 kgf (BMI ≤ 24 kg/m2); ≤30 kgf (BMI 24.1–26 kg/m2); ≤30 kgf (BMI 26.1–28 kg/m2); ≤32 kgf (BMI > 28 kg/m2) / Women: ≤17 kgf (BMI ≤ 23 kg/m2); ≤17.3 kgf (BMI 23.1–26 kg/m2); ≤18 kgf (BMI 26.1–29 kg/m2); ≤21 kgf (BMI > 29 kg/m2)
  7. ** Not defined due to the type of analysis conducted by the study