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Table 1 Participant Baseline Characteristics by Treatment Group

From: Patient-centered professional practice models for managing low back pain in older adults: a pilot randomized controlled trial

Characteristic Shared Care, n = 44 Dual Care, n = 44 Medical Care, n = 43
Age, years, mean ± SD 73.2 ± 6.2 72.3 ± 6.0 72.7 ± 6.4
Gender, male, n (%) 28 (64) 28 (64) 24 (56)
Race, white, n (%) 40 (91) 43 (98) 40 (93)
Employment, current, n (%) 4 (9) 11 (25) 11 (26)
Body mass index, mean ± SD 31.9 ± 5.7 31.8 ± 7.3 31.7 ± 7.0
Timed Up & Go, seconds, mean ± SDa 12.3 ± 5.3 11.1 ± 2.6 11.6 ± 3.8
RAND-36, mean ± SD (range 0–100)b
 Physical function 50.0 ± 26.9 57.8 ± 23.6 65.0 ± 23.3
 Emotional well-being 78.5 ± 13.1 80.4 ± 14.0 77.8 ± 13.3
Patient Health Questionnaire, n (%)
 None-to-minimal depression 27 (62) 32 (73) 31 (72)
 Mild-to-moderate depression 15 (34) 11 (25) 12 (28)
Generalized Anxiety Disorder, n (%)
 None-to-minimal anxiety 37 (84) 38 (86) 34 (79)
 Mild-to-moderate anxiety 7 (16) 6 (13) 9 (21)
LBP onset, ≥1 year, n (%) 40 (91) 37 (84) 33 (77)
LBP days per week, median ± IQR 7.0 ± 6.0 7.0 ± 5.0 7.0 ± 7.0
LBP medication use, past week, n (%)
 0 days of medication use 15 (34) 16 (36) 16 (37)
 1–6 days of medication use 14 (32) 17 (38) 17 (40)
 7 days of medication use 15 (34) 11 (25) 10 (23)
Types of LBP medication, n (%)
 Opioids or narcotics 4 (9) 4 (9) 5 (12)
 Over-the-counter medicine 23 (52) 16 (36) 17 (40)
 Non-steroidal anti-inflammatories 17 (39) 24 (55) 19 (44)
 Sedatives or muscle relaxants 7 (16) 5 (11) 5 (12)
Days cut down on activity in past 4 weeks due to LBP, median ± IQR 2 (0–10.0) 4 (0–8.5) 5 (0–20.0)
Bothersomeness mean ± SD (range 1–5)a 3.5 ± 0.8 3.4 ± 0.8 3.3 ± 0.8
Fear avoidance beliefs, work or daily activity, mean ± SD (range 0–42)a 14.7 ± 8.7 13.0 ± 10.0 10.4 ± 8.4
Fear avoidance beliefs, physical activity, mean ± SD (range 0–24)a 12.8 ± 6.0 11.8 ± 6.2 12.0 ± 5.0
Numerical rating scale, average LBP in past week, mean ± SD (range 0–10)a 5.3 ± 1.9 6.0 ± 1.9 6.1 ± 1.9
Numerical rating scale, worst LBP in past week, mean ± SD (range 0–10)a 7.3 ± 1.5 7.4 ± 1.8 7.5 ± 1.5
Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire, mean ± SD (range 0–24)a 9.0 ± 5.2 7.1 ± 4.4 6.3 ± 4.9
  1. aLower score indicates better functioning
  2. bHigher score indicates better functioning
  3. IQR Interquartile range, LBP Low back pain, SD standard deviation