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Table 1 Care receiver/ caregiver characteristics and caregiver outcomes at home and in institutionalised long-term care (ILTC)

From: Positive and negative outcomes of informal caregiving at home and in institutionalised long-term care: a cross-sectional study

  Total (n = 5197) At home (n = 4227) ILTC (n = 920) p-value
Care receiver characteristics
Socio-Demographic Characteristics n    n    n    
Age, mean (sd) 5197 80.7 (7.25) 4227 79.6 (6.9) 920 85.7 (6.5) <.001
Female, % 5197 62   4277 59   920 76   <.001
Native, % 5190 94   4271 93   919 96   .005
Mean level of education 4615    3740    875    <.001
 Low, %   44    41    55   
 Middle, %   51    52    43   
 High, %   5    7    3   
Marital status 5191    4273    918    <.001
 Married/cohabiting, %   48    54    20   
 Widowed/divorced/single, %   52    46    80   
Health-Related Characteristics n    n    n    
Number of morbidities, mean (sd), ranging from 0 to 17 a 2,142b 4.0 (2.5) 1918 b 3.9 (2.5) 224 b 4.6 (2.4) <.001
Disability, mean (sd), ranging from 0 to 15 a 4118 b 5.9 (3.4) 3344 b 5.5 (3.2) 774 b 7.8 (3.3) <.001
Self-perceived health, mean (sd), ranging from 1 to 5 a 4334 b 2.5 (.8) 3489 b 2.5 (.8) 845 b 2.4 (.8) <.001
Psychological wellbeing, mean (sd), ranging from 5 to 30 a 4096 b 22.6 (4.3) 3303 b 22.7 (4.2) 793 b 22.4 (4.7) .080
Caregiver characteristics
Socio-Demographic Characteristics n    n    n    
Age, mean (sd) 4563 b 63.2 (12.5) 3680 b 64.0 (12.9) 883 b 60.1 (10.4) <.001
Female, % 4081 69   3201 69   880 71   .188
Relationship with care receiver 5141    4235    906    <.001
 Child (in law), %   51    46    75   
 Partner, %   39    46    10   
 Others, %   10    8    15   
Living together with care receiver, % 5154 51   4239 50   915 6   <.001
Health-Related Characteristics n    n    n    
Self-perceived health, mean (sd), ranging from 1 to 5 a 5050 b 3.1 (1.0) 4148 b 3.1 (1.0) 902 b 3.2 (1.0) <.001
Caregiving-Related Characteristics n    n    n    
Objective burden, mean (sd), ranging from 0 to 168 h 3950 b 17.4 (24.2) 3168 b 19.2 (25.5) 782 b 9.0 (14.0) <.001
 Tasks around the house (e.g., cleaning, preparing meals)   9.9 (16.3)   11.2 (17.3)   4.0 (8.1)  
 Personal care (e.g., dressing or eating)   3.7 (9.4)   3.8 (10.2)   1.5 (4.9)  
 Assistance with other activities (e.g., travelling, financial matters)   4.7 (8.5)   4.9 (9.1)   3.5 (4.9)  
Variation in caregiving tasks 3950 b    3168 b    782 b    <.001
  < 2 tasks, %   32    31    39   
  ≥ 2 tasks, %   68    69    61   
Hours support per week, mean (sd) ranging from 0 to 168 h 3950 b 2.9 (7.8) 3168 b 3.0 (8.3) 782 b 2.3 (5.2) .032
Caregiver outcomes n    n    n    
Subjective burden, mean (sd), ranging from 0 to 100 a 4746 b 41.9 (25.0) 3870 b 42.2 (25.2) 876 b 40.1 (24.2) .134
Quality of life mean (sd), ranging 0– 100 a 4074 b 79.6 (15.0) 3287 b 78.9 (15.1) 787 b 82.7 (14.0) 0.014
  1. Significant results (p < 0.05) are in bold
  2. a bold scores are most favourable scores
  3. b missing values imputed by multiple imputation