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Table 3 Progressive exercise program for leg strength, leg speed, trunk muscle endurance, limb flexibility, postural stability and walking function

From: The rehabilitation enhancing aging through connected health (REACH) study: study protocol for a quasi-experimental clinical trial

Difficulty Squat/sit to standa Step upsa Plantar-flexors Trunk Stabilization I Trunk Stabilization II Hip Girdle Transitional to floor Walkingb
Level 1a Elevated surface sit to stand Single leg step up (with bilateral UE support) Double leg heel raises with counter assist (forefoot elevated surface as needed) Standing with back against the wall with heels, hips, shoulders and head touching the wall, keeping eyes level-arms down Arm extended plank position using a counter for support, unilateral arm or leg extension Standing chair/counter assist unilateral straight plane leg abduction sitting - > half-kneeling - > sitting with chair/furniture assistance Continuous 5–10 min
Level 1b Sit to stand Single leg step up (with single UE support) Double leg heel raises with forearms resting on walls Standing with back against the wall with heels, hips, shoulders and head touching the wall, keeping eyes level, add in alternating arm raises/double arm raises Arm extended plank position using a counter for support, alternate arm/leg extension Standing wall finger tip assist unilateral straight plane leg abduction sitting - > quadraped - > sitting with chair/furniture assistance Continuous 10–20 min
Level 2a Touch and goes (Buttock barely comes to rest on the chair followed by a rapid stand) Single leg step up without UE support Double leg concentric raise/single leg eccentric lower   Quadraped alternate arm lifts Standing no UE assist unilateral straight plane leg abduction sitting - > quadraped - > supine - > sitting with chair/furniture assistance Continuous 10–20 min with interval bursts
Level 2b Chair hover (Butt not allowed to touch the chair (hover) followed by a rapid stand) Single leg step up with opposite foot toe tap on the step Single leg concentric/eccentric raises with counter assistance   Quadraped alternate arm/leg lifts Wall side plank unilateral hip abduction Standing - > half-kneeling - > standing no chair/furniture assistance; Reverse lunge with no chair/furniture assistance continuous 20–30 min
Level 3a air squats or wide leg squats Single leg step up with opposite foot hover over the step Single leg concentric/eccentric heel raises with wall assist   Prone alternating arm/leg lifts Air squat with single leg abduction upon rising Standing - > quadraped - > standing, no chair/furniture assistance Continuous 30+ minutes
Level 3b Tandem sit to stand or wall squat with hold Single leg step up with opposite leg hip flexion Increasing reps/excursion of the motion   Prone superman or standing founder Single leg dead lift Standing - > supine- > standing, no chair/furniture assistance Continuous 30+ with interval bursts
Stretch/Low resistance option Figure 4 stretch seated or supine Unilateral standing hamstring stretch on stair Unilateral calf stretch in standing lunge position   cat/cow stretch in quadraped Single/Double Knee to chest in supine Unilateral hip flexor stretch in high kneeling or standing standing arms up/down with breathing
  1. aRapid concentric motion with slow/controlled eccentric motion
  2. bIncreasing walking speed, either continuously or during shorter burst throughout the walk