Skip to main content

Table 3 Differences in balance and gait patterns between the footwear conditions

From: Preliminary evaluation of prototype footwear and insoles to optimise balance and gait in older people

  Flexible footwear Own footwear Prototype footwear P valuee
Balance
 Postural sway velocity, °/secc 0.53 (0.19) 0.60 (0.26) 0.57 (0.21) 0.096
Limits of stability test
 Maximum excursion (% LOS)b 70.3 (15.6) 69.9 (17.4) 71.5 (15.7) 0.594
 Directional control (%)d 57.4 (15.5) 54.0 (17.2) 55.1 (15.3) 0.206
Tandem walk test
 Speed, cm/secd 17.8 (8.7) 19.4 (10.0) 18.3 (10.6) 0.086
 Step width, cmc 11.6 (5.7) 10.2 (6.2) 7.4 (3.1)a,b 0.001
 End sway, °/secc 5.9 (3.4) 4.9 (2.0) 4.1 (2.0)a,b 0.009
Gait patterns
 Walking speed, cm/secd 107.4 (18.1) 109.5 (19.2) 108.0 (17.8) 0.204
 Cadence, steps/minc 110.8 (10.1) 112.0 (11.2) 111.1 (10.2) 0.173
 Step length, cmd 58.0 (7.1) 58.5 (7.2) 58.2 (6.8) 0.544
 Step width, cmc 59.1 (6.6) 59.6 (7.0) 59.4 (6.6) 0.303
  1. Values are mean (SD)
  2. asignificantly different to flexible shoe
  3. bsignificantly different to own shoes
  4. LOS limits of stability
  5. clower scores represent better performance
  6. dhigher scores represent better performance
  7. e P value for main effect of one-way ANOVA