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Table 2 Comparison of primary outcomes in the intervention and control groups (N = 83)

From: Does dual task training improve walking performance of older adults with concern of falling?

   Intervention no CoF (n = 20) Intervention CoF (n = 30) Control no CoF (n = 15) Control CoF (n = 18) Time (pre-post) Group x time Group x time x CoF
Gait variables   Pre Post Pre Post Pre Post Pre Post F p
pη2
F P
pη2
F P
pη2
Single-Task pre- post
step width [cm]   11.62 (3.03) 10.09 (3.57) 12.44 (3.09) 11.97 (3.0) 10.87 (4.14) 10.19 (3.17.) 12.66 (3.17) 11.73 (3.72) 11.678 >0.001 0.129 0.855 0.468
0.031
1.498 0.225
0.019
step length
[cm]
l 43.77 (8.72) 49.25 (7.16) 37.37 (12.34) 41.58 (13.67) 51.12 (7.54) 49.54 (8.32) 40.60 (13.22) 41.06 (12.21) 12.141 >0.001 0.133 6.603 >0.001 0.201 1.802 0.183
0.022
r 43.27 (9.44) 48.63 (7.90) 37.58 (13.65) 41.71 (14.34) 51.77 (7.57) 49.55 (8.14) 38.74 (13.97) 39.54 (13.91) 10.533 >0.01 0.118 6.966 >0.001 0.209 2.941 0.090
0.036
gait-line [mm] l 198.10 (57.05) 219.30 (38.39) 179.73 (38.70) 185.73 (35.23) 230.87 (41.68) 233.13 (46.37) 184.00 (47.73) 191.39 (42.99) 10.916 >0.001 .121 2.184 .096
.077
3.319 0.072
0.040
r 193.40 (60.18) 220.85 (37.85) 182.68 (37.60) 191.17 (32.62) 232.68 (43.69) 234.87 (46.32) 186.06 (45.67) 192.90 (48.37) 14.959 >0.001
.159
3.570 .018
.119
4.112 0.046
0.049
Dual Task pre –post
step width [cm]   10.77 (2.98) 10.25 (3.38) 12.37 (4.0) 12.24 (3.23) 11.0 (3.42) 10.32 (2.76) 12.95 (4.01) 12.59 (4.28) .573 0.452 0.010 0.246 .783
.009
0.004 0.950
0.000
step length
[cm]
l 44.35 (9.70) 50.09 (7.75) 38.75 (13.0) 41.63
(13.22)
50.45
(6.25)
44.39 (7.30) 41.26 (11.61) 41.24 (12.26) 9.230 >0.01 .105 5.246 >0.01 .166 1.666 0.201
0.021
r 43.89 (10.20) 49.16 (8.39) 38.03 (13.78) 41.02 (14.07) 51.50 (5.49) 49.91 (7.54) 40.13 (14.01) 39.82 (13.79) 5.109 > 0.05
.061
4.603 >0.01 .149 1.597 0.210
0.020
gait-line [mm] l 210.50 (42.58) 222.00 (36.34) 180.87 (43.92) 186.47 (37.80) 236.73 (40.05) 237.47 (45.66) 199.72 (39.99) 200.50 (35.57) 2.971 .089
.036
0.852 0.470
0.031
0.303 0.583
0.004
r 207.70 (47.06) 222.10 (34.50) 186.50 (37.57) 194.13 (30.61) 237.80 (39.44) 236.00 (47.21) 203.79 (39.92) 200.39 (44.17) 2.950 .090
.036
2.802 > 0.05
.096
0.029 0.559
0.004
Secondary outcomes pre-post
FES-I   17.05 (1.10) 17.00 (0.92) 23.73 (2.80) 21.80 (3.24) 17.60 (0.99) 17.60 (1.12) 23.83 (3.50) 23.66 (4.02) 9.822 0.002 0.111 5.435 0.002
0.171
4.471 0.038
0.054
SF12 physical   46.76 (8.80) 48.82 (6.88) 47.07 (9.40) 48.81 (9.01) 47.82 (9.17) 48.33 (7.22) 48.41 (9.14) 46.53 (10.18) 0.523 0.473 0.009 1.133 0.344
0.058
0.379 0.541
0.007
SF12 mental   49.46 (6.92) 51.98 (6.78) 51.21 (9.63) 53.58 (9.44) 52.98 (5.41) 56.58 (3.47) 53.20 (7.40) 54.53 (7.70) 13.513 0.001 0.197 0.377 0.770
0.020
0.626 0.432
0.001
SPPB   11.05 (0.94) 11.65 (0.75) 10.73 (1.48) 11.23 (1.04) 10.93 (1.28) 11.27 (0.96) 10.89 (0.96) 11.22 (1.06) 14.008 >0.001 0.151 0.298 0.827
0.011
0.045 0.833
0.001
Number of correct answers Stroop sitting (0–30) 27.3 (2.6) 28.1 (1.7) 26.9 (4.3) 28.2 (2.5) 28.7 (2.5) 25.3 (9.5) 25.1 (5.2) 25.6 (4.0) 0.096 0.758
0.002
2.009 0.123
0.097
2.115 0.151
0.036
Number of correct answers Stroop walking
(0–30)
27.7 (2.7) 28.2 (1.8) 27.0 (3.9) 27.7 (2.4) 27.5 (3.8) 23.5 (11.1) 25.2 (3.9) 26.1 (3.5) 1.084 0.302
0.019
3.489 0.022
0.157
6.230 0.016
0.100