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Table 5 Summary of study findings of the meta-analysis (subgroup analysis)

From: Effectiveness and safety of beta blockers in the management of hypertension in older adults: a systematic review to help reduce inappropriate prescribing

Author year Objective
Kahn 2006 [33] To explore the efficacy (stroke, myocardial infarction and death) of beta blockers in “younger”(< 60 years) and “older” (≥ 60 years) patients.
Results:
1. Beta blockers compared to placebo or no treatment 1 (5 trials and n = 8019 patients, range mean age 65 to 75.7 years)
Primary outcome: composite cardiovascular outcome of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction or nonfatal stroke Beta blockers´ benefits were not found in trials enrolling older patients
RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.75–1.05, based on 1115 events in 8019 patients.
Death RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.74–1.12
Nonfatal myocardial infarction RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.83–1.16
Nonfatal stroke RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.63–0.98
Heart failure RR 0.54, 95% CI 0.37–0.81
2. Beta blocker compared to other antihypertensive agents 1 (7 trials and n = 87,180 patients, range mean age 60.4 to 76 years)
Primary outcome: composite cardiovascular outcome of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction or nonfatal stroke Beta blockers were associated with a higher risk of events than were other antihypertensive agents (7405 events, RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.01–1.10).
Death RR 1.05, 95% CI 0.99–1.11
Nonfatal myocardial infarction RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.94–1.20
Nonfatal stroke RR 1.18, 95% CI 1.07–1.30
Heart failure RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.87–1.11
  1. Legend: RR relative risk, CI confidence interval, 1p–values not reported