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Table 3 Quality appraisal for intervention studies

From: Efficacy and safety of metformin in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in older adults: a systematic review for the development of recommendations to reduce potentially inappropriate prescribing

Source Type of study Selection bias Performance bias Detection bias Attrition bias Reporting bias  
1. Random sequence generation 2. Allocation concealment 3. Blinding of participants and personnel 4. Blinding of outcome assessment 5. Incomplete outcome data 6. Selective reporting 7. Other bias
Cryer 2005 [31] Randomised, open label, parallel-group, multicentre, clinical trial UR HR HR UR LR UR HR
Janka 2007 [35] Parallel-group, open-label, randomized, multinational clinical trial LR LR HR HR LR LR LR
Josephkutty 1990 [36] Randomized double-blind cross-over study UR UR UR UR UR UR UR
Schweizer 2009 [43] Randomized, active-controlled, parallel-group study UR UR UR UR LR UR HR
  1. LR low risk of bias; HR high risk of bias; UR unclear risk of bias