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Table 5 Quality appraisal for observational studies

From: Effectiveness and safety of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors in the management of type 2 diabetes in older adults: a systematic review and development of recommendations to reduce inappropriate prescribing

Source Type of study 1. Focused issue 2. Appropriate method 3. Recruitment 4. Selection of controls 5. Exposure measured 6. Outcome measured 7. Identified confounding factors 8. Confounding factors in design/analysis 9. Follow up complete 10. Follow up long 11. Results 12. Precise results 13. Believe results 14. Results be applied 15. Results fit evidence
Chang et al. 2015 [33] Cohort study Y Y Y NA Y Y Y Y Y Y    Y Y N
Chen et al. 2015 [34] Cohort study Y Y Y NA Y Y Y Y Y Y    Y Y N
Driessen et al. 2014 [45] Retrospective population based cohort study Y Y Y NA Y Y Y Y Y Y    Y Y N
Giorda et al. 2015 [48] Case-control study Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y U    Y Y N
Mistry et al. 2011 [57] retrospective observational survey Y U Y NA U Y U U NA NA    Y Y Y
Ou et al. 2015 [35] Cohort study Y Y Y NA Y Y Y Y Y Y    Y Y N
Penfornis et al. 2012 [49] Prospective cohort study Y Y Y N U Y U U Y Y    Y U Y
Shih et al. 2015 [36] Nested case-control study Y Y Y Y Y Y U Y NA NA    U U N
Sicras-Mainar and Navarro-Artieda 2014 [50] Retrospective longitudinal study Y U U U Y U U N U U    U U U
Tziomalos et al. 2015 [51] Observational study Y Y U NA Y Y U U NA NA    U U N
Viljoen et al. 2013 [46] Observational study Y U N U U U U U NA NA    Y Y Y
Yu et al. 2015 [47] Cohort study with a nested case-control analysis Y N Y Y Y Y N Y NA NA    Y Y N
  1. Y Yes, N No, U Unclear, NA Not applicable. Columns of items 11 and 12 are empty because these can not be answered with Y, N or U