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Table 4 Quality appraisal for intervention studies

From: Effectiveness and safety of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors in the management of type 2 diabetes in older adults: a systematic review and development of recommendations to reduce inappropriate prescribing

Source Type of study Selection bias Performance bias Detection bias Attrition bias Reporting bias  
1. Random sequence generation 2. Allocation concealment 3. Blinding of participants and personnel 4. Blinding of outcome assessment 5. Incomplete outcome data 6. Selective reporting 7. Other bias
Banerji et al. 2010 [29] Retrospective analysis of the GALIANT study which is a multicenter, randomised, open-label study LR HR HR HR LR UR HR
Barnett et al. 2013 [31] Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial LR LR LR UR LR LR UR
Barzilai et al. 2011 [30] Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial LR LR LR UR LR UR UR
Chien et al. 2011 [32] Randomised, open-labelled, parallel-group study UR UR UR HR UR UR HR
Ferrannini et al. 2009 [54] Multicentre, randomised, double-blind, active-controlled study UR UR UR UR LR UR HR
Fonseca et al. 2008 [56] Multicentre, double-blind, parallel-group, randomised study UR UR UR UR LR UR HR
Green et al. 2015 [13] Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study LR LR LR LR LR LR HR
Hartley et al. 2015 [37] Randomised, parallel-group, multinational, non-inferiority clinical trial with an active controlled, double-blind treatment period LR LR LR UR LR LR HR
Kadowaki et al. 2014 [38] Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study UR UR LR UR LR UR HR
Matthews et al. 2010 [55] Multicentre, randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, active-controlled study UR UR LR UR LR UR HR
Rosenstock et al. 2013 [59] Multicentre, randomised, double-blind, active controlled study UR UR LR UR LR UR HR
Schernthaner et al. 2015 [39] Multinational, randomised, double-blind, phase IIIb/IV study LR UR UR UR HR UR HR
Schweizer et al. 2009 [40] Double-blind, randomised, multicentre, active-controlled, parallel-group study UR UR UR UR LR UR HR
Schweizer et al. 2013 [53] Post-hoc sub-analysis of a multi-centre, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group UR UR UR UR UR UR UR
Scirica et al. 2013 [12]
Scirica et al. 2014 [41]
Leiter et al. 2015 [42]
Mosenzon et al. 2015 [43]
Multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial LR LR LR LR LR LR LR
Strain et al. 2013 [52] Multinational, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled LR LR LR LR LR LR LR
White et al. 2013 [44] Multicentre, randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial LR UR LR UR LR LR HR
  1. LR Low risk of bias, HR High risk of bias, UR Unclear risk of bias