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Table 1 Characteristic of Study Sample by adherence to Drug Regimens (N = 400)

From: Non-adherence to medication regimens among older African-American adults

Characteristic of Sample N (%) Non-Adherence to at least One Medication Regimens
N (%)
Dose and interval Deciding to skip Forgot to take Taking Less Failed to follow food/drink instructions Failed to follow activity instructions
Gender
 Male 141 (35) 70 (50) 37 (26) 12 (9) 23 (14) 101 (72) 96 (69)
 Female 259 (65) 118 (46) 101 (39) 20 (8) 40 (15) 189 (73) 179 (69)
Age
 65–74 241 (61) 115 (48) 88 (37) 20 (8) 44 (18) 201 (83) 163 (67)
  ≥ 75 157 (39) 73 (46) 50 (32) 12 (8) 19 (12) 139 (89) 112 (71)
Education
 No high school diploma 99 (25) 50 (49) 31 (32) 7 (7) 14 (4) 77 (79) 76 (78)
 High school diploma 301 (75) 138 (46) 107 (36) 25 (8) 49 16) 213 (71) 199 (66)
Marital Status
 Not married 322 (80) 146 (46) 32 (41) 6 (7) 11 (14) 57 (73) 51 (65)
 Married/living with Partner 78 (20) 42 (54) 106 (33) 26 (8) 52 (16) 233 (73) 224 (70)
Co-payment for RX
 No 83 (21) 49 (59) 28 (34) 7 (8) 10 (12) 52 (63) 49 (59)
 Yes 317 (79) 139 (44) 110 (35) 25 (8) 53 (17) 238 (76) 226 (72)
Number of Providers
 1–2 247 (62) 96 (39) 71 (29) 18 (7) 32 (13) 161 (66) 159 (65)
  ≥ 3 153 (38) 92 (60) 71 (46) 14 (9) 31 (20) 129 (84) 116 (76)
Number of Pharmacists
 1 287 (72) 128 (45) 96 (34) 19 (7) 40 (14) 202 (71) 188 (66)
  ≥ 2 113 (28) 60 (53) 42 (37) 13 (12) 23 (20) 88 (78) 87 (77)
Number of Co-morbidity
  ≤ 3 128 (32) 49 (39) 25 (20) 7 (6) 10 (8) 85 (67) 76 (60)
 4–7 195 (49) 90 (46) 78 (40) 17 (9) 40 (21) 143 (74) 141 (73)
  ≥ 8 77 (19) 49 (64) 35 (45) 8 (10) 13 (17) 62 (81) 58 (75)
Smoking Status
 Current 64 (16) 31 (48) 22 (34) 5 (8) 13 (20) 36 (56) 40 (63)
 Never 334 (84) 157 (47) 116 (35) 27 (8) 50 (15) 254 (76) 237 (71)
Alcohol Use (Drinks/day)
 No/Occasionally 355 (89) 164 (46) 119 (34) 27 (8) 54 (15) 257 (72) 246 (69)
 Yes 43 (11) 24 (56) 19 (44) 5 (12) 9 (21) 33 (77) 29 (67)
Memory Deficit
 Not Noticeable 176 (45) 69 (39) 53 (30) 11 (6) 23 (13) 124 (70) 130 (74)
 Mild to Moderate 160 (40) 79 (49) 64 (40) 15 (9) 31 (19) 119 (74) 102 (64)
 Severe 61 (15) 39 (63) 21 (34) 6 (10) 9 (15) 46 (75) 42 (69)
Medication Knowledge
A. How many/often
  Correct 260 (65) 66 (25) 89 (34) 36 (14) 24 (9) 181 (70) 177 (68)
  Incorrect 140 (35) 122 (88) 49 (36) 27 (20) 8 (6) 109 (79) 98 (71)
B. Purpose of Rx
  Correct 140 (35) 50 (36) 42 (30) 20 (14) 13 (9) 95 (68) 83 (59)
  Incorrect 258 (65) 136 (53) 96 (37) 43 (17) 19 (7) 195 (76) 192 (74)
Complexity Index
  < 10 108 (27) 30 (28) 20 (19) 7 (6) 10 (9) 84 (78) 57 (53)
  ≥ 10 290 (73) 158 (54) 118 (41) 25 (9) 53 (18) 256 (88) 218 (75)
Polypharmacy
 0–4 161 (40) 56 (34) 42 (26) 25 (15) 12 (8) 100 (62) 99 (61)
  ≥ 5 237 (60) 134 (57) 98 (41) 40 (17) 22 (9) 190 (80) 176 (74)
Medication Duplication
 No 185 (46) 81 (44) 53 (29) 13 (7) 20 (11) 128 (70) 119 (65)
 Yes 215 (54) 107 (50) 85 (40) 19 (9) 43 (20) 162 (77) 156 (73)
PIM (AVOID)
 None 292 (73) 132 (46) 92 (32) 24 (8) 41 (14) 204 (70) 196 (68)
 At Least One 108 (27) 56 (52) 46 (43) 8 (7) 22 (20) 86 (80) 79 (73)
  1. Note: Bolded values are statistically significant (P ≤ .05)