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Table 2 Outcome data for completers at baseline and 3 months

From: Adapted yoga to improve physical function and health-related quality of life in physically-inactive older adults: a randomised controlled pilot trial

Characteristic Intervention (n = 21) Control (n = 26) Adjusted mean difference between groups at 3 months* (95% CI)
  Baseline 3 months Baseline 3 months  
Physical characteristics
 Body mass, kg  Body mass index, kg/m2  Waist circumference, cm  Heart rate, beats/min  Systolic blood pressure, mmHg  Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 74.4 (14.8) 29.4 (6.0) 96.2 (12.6) 79 (17) 153 (32) 87 (17) 74.2 (15.2) 29.3 (6.1) 94.5 (12.7) 74 (14) 142 (22) 82 (13) 79.3 (19.9) 31.0 (6.3) 99.3 (12.4) 80 (11) 141 (22) 79 (11) 78.0 (19.0) 30.5 (6.0) 98.7 (12.4) 80 (11) 138 (24) 75 (13) 1.0 (−0.4 to 2.5) 0.4 (−0.2 to 0.9) −0.8 (−4.0 to 2.3) −6 (−11 to −1) −3 (−14 to 8) 3 (−5 to 11)
Physical function
 SPPB total scorea  Standing balancea, s  Sit to standb, s  Four-metre walk timeb, s  Chair sit-and reacha, cm  Back scratcha, cm 9.5 (1.9) 27.51 (4.55) 16.45 (6.63) 4.10 (0.83) −7 (9) −11 (13) 10.0 (1.8) 29.00 (3.08) 14.64 (4.52) 4.04 (0.87) −2 (10) −7 (12) 8.2 (2.3) 26.96 (6.03) 22.59 (11.90) 5.81 (4.46) −8 (14) −18 (17) 8.2 (2.2) 27.44 (4.82) 19.63 (8.10) 5.28 (1.84) −8 (13) −16 (17) 0.9 (−0.3 to 2.0) 1.50 (−0.98 to 3.97) −1.73 (−4.08 to 0.62) −0.63 (−1.47 to 0.21) 5 (0 to 10) 2 (−2 to 7)
Questionnaires
 EQ-5D utility indexa  EQ-VASa  WEMWBSa 0.72 (0.16) 71 (13) 49 (12) 0.81 (0.12) 83 (11) 56 (9) 0.64 (0.20) 64 (17) 52 (8) 0.63 (0.22) 63 (17) 52 (10) 0.12 (0.03 to 0.21) 17 (8 to 26) 6 (1 to 11)
  1. Data are presented as unadjusted mean (SD) unless stated otherwise
  2. *Intervention minus control; Adjustment for site and baseline score
  3. aHigher score is better; bLower score is better
  4. N.B. on ANCOVA assumptions: (i) The normality assumption appeared to be violated for standing balance. Data on the proportion of participants from each group who achieved a highest possible score on this test are described in the discussion; (ii) Participant 1303 from the control group appeared to be a statistical outlier for the sit-to-stand, four-metre walk, back scratch and EQ-5D utility index variables. Sensitivity analyses excluding this individual from the data set showed trivial effect on the effect estimates (data not presented); (iii) Levene’s test of homogeneity of variance was significant (P < 0.05) for the SPPB, sit-to-stand and back scratch variables. Mann-Whitney U tests on follow-up scores produced P values of 0.009, 0.009 and 0.059 for these variables, respectively; (iv) homogeneity of regression slopes was verified for all variables except WEMWBS. A Mann-Whitney U test on follow-up scores produced a P value of 0.069 for this variable
  5. ANCOVA, analysis of covariance; CI, confidence interval; EQ-VAS, EuroQol Visual Analogue Scale; SPPB, Short Physical Performance Battery; WEMWBS, Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale