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Table 1 Distribution of demographic and socio-behavioral characteristics [mean (SD) or percentage] by gender and birth cohort, Taiwan, 2006

From: General cognitive status among Baby boomers and pre-boomers in Taiwan: the interplay between mid-life socioeconomic status and city residence

  Female Male
Baby Boomers (born 1946–1964) Pre-Boomers (born before 1946) p-value Baby Boomers (born 1946–1964) Pre-Boomers (born before 1946) p-value
N = 275 N = 315   N = 257 N = 396  
Mid-life SES (%)    0.00    0.00
 Low 0.00b 18.57   0.00b 10.63  
 Medium 54.84 45.27   49.74 50.52  
 High 45.16 36.16   50.26 38.85  
City residence in 2006 (%) 53.91 44.51 0.06 51.55 43.08 0.10
APOE4 (%)    0.00    0.00
 Non-carrier 62.54 83.57   67.45 85.49  
 Carrier 11.81 16.43   10.70 14.51  
 Unknown 25.64 0.00a   21.85 0.00a  
Economic strain (%)    0.81    0.04
 Enough 7.12 7.31   10.63 6.59  
 Just enough 73.46 70.04   65.14 68.10  
 Some difficulty 14.57 16.54   22.29 19.09  
 Much difficulty 4.86 6.12   1.93 6.21  
Marital status (%)    0.00    0.00
 Currently married 80.15 58.74   89.98 82.73  
 Widowed 15.15 39.42   2.79 11.94  
 Never married/separated/divorced 4.70 1.84   7.22 5.33  
Family living arrangement (%)
 Living with partners 77.11 54.15 0.00 89.85 79.35 0.00
 Living with grandchildren 32.92 51.77 0.00 19.39 43.45 0.00
Family stressor (%)    0.21    0.04
 0 55.96 60.91   61.39 65.00  
 1 18.03 14.57   19.82 12.28  
 2 and more 26.00 24.52   18.79 22.72  
Weekly exercise (%)    0.01    0.00
 Less than 1 23.65 14.71   20.08 13.24  
 2–5 52.80 59.15   60.72 53.78  
 6+ 23.55 26.15   19.19 32.98  
Depressive symptoms [mean (SD); range] 4.43 (5.59; 0–26) 6.04 (6.11; 0–26) 0.00 3.25 (4.65; 0–30) 4.68 (5.33; 0–28) 0.00
Age [mean (SD); range] 56.39 (2.12; 53–60) 70.29 (6.57; 61–85) 0.00 56.32 (2.14; 53–60) 70.88 (6.73; 61–85) 0.00
Ethnicity (%)    0.27    0.00
 Fukianese 81.21 77.21   72.01 70.30  
 Hakka 13.95 17.74   22.07 13.00  
 Mainlander 4.84 5.06   5.92 16.69  
Cognitive score [mean (SD); range] 20.20 (3.87; 5–28) 16.51 (5.13; 0–26) 0.00 21.30 (3.20; 8–27) 18.45 (4.32; 0–27) 0.00
  1. N is unweighted; percentages and means are weighted. Percentages may not sum to 100 owing to rounding. Chi-square tests were used for testing by birth cohort the significance of categorical variables and t-tests were used for testing by birth cohort the significance of continuous variables. aTwo observations were excluded due to missing APOE status. bThe five low SES individuals in this cohort were combined with the medium SES group