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Table 5 Adjusted mean (standard error) for the Mental Health Component Summary Score for the type and autonomy of social participation, stratified by gender

From: Positive and negative influences of social participation on physical and mental health among community-dwelling elderly aged 65–70 years: a cross-sectional study in Japan

  Males Females Interaction
  Na Mean (SE)     P b Na Mean (SE)       P b
Volunteer groups
 Non-participation 3,995 48.44 (0.17)     0.196 5,568 47.65 (0.17) *      <0.001 p = 0.029
 Very/rather obligatory 341 47.83 (0.33)      298 47.13 (0.36)   *      
 Rather voluntary 379 48.11 (0.33)      567 48.13 (0.29)        
 Very voluntary 372 48.43 (0.33)      522 48.68 (0.30) * *      
Sports groups
 Non-participation 3,627 48.37 (0.17) *    <0.001 4,654 47.58 (0.18) * *     <0.001 p = 0.937
 Very/rather obligatory 144 47.26 (0.48)   *    158 46.37 (0.47) *   * *    
 Rather voluntary 493 48.29 (0.30)    *   757 47.79 (0.26)    *   *   
 Very voluntary 811 49.20 (0.26) * * *   1,361 48.60 (0.23)   *   * *   
Hobby clubs
 Non-participation 3,230 48.34 (0.17) *    0.009 3,674 47.58 (0.18) *      <0.001 p = 0.193
 Very/rather obligatory 144 47.59 (0.48)   *    173 46.37 (0.47)   *      
 Rather voluntary 720 48.40 (0.26)      1,122 47.79 (0.26)    *     
 Very voluntary 983 48.91 (0.24) * *    1,962 48.60 (0.23) * * *     
Senior citizens’ clubs
 Non-participation 4,531 48.39 (0.17)     0.218 6,350 47.70 (0.17)       0.009 p = 0.801
 Very/rather obligatory 298 47.88 (0.36)      302 47.05 (0.36) * *      
 Rather voluntary 175 48.74 (0.44)      204 48.43 (0.42) *       
 Very voluntary 85 49.03 (0.63)      91 48.86 (0.61)   *      
Neighborhood community associations
 Non-participation 2,557 48.33 (0.18)     0.029 3,169 47.57 (0.18) * *     <0.001 p = 0.449
 Very/rather obligatory 1,692 48.30 (0.20)      2,623 47.59 (0.20)    * *    
 Rather voluntary 566 48.82 (0.28)      869 48.27 (0.25) *   *     
 Very voluntary 257 49.15 (0.38)      274 49.28 (0.38)   *   *    
Cultural groups
 Non-participation 4,301 48.41 (0.17)     0.483 5,294 47.67 (0.17) *      0.001 p = 0.331
 Very/rather obligatory 132 48.10 (0.50)      205 46.96 (0.42)   *      
 Rather voluntary 304 48.02 (0.36)      673 47.73 (0.28)        
 Very voluntary 357 48.62 (0.34)      773 48.43 (0.27) * *      
  1. The data in this table are adjusted for age, family size, BMI, comorbidities, smoking, alcohol intake, depression and cognitive functioning
  2. aThe total N varies slightly between each group as a result of missing data
  3. bThis is by use of an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for differences in mean scores
  4. * P<0.05 with the Bonferroni correction method