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Table 4 Adjusted mean (standard error) for the Physical Health Component Summary Score for the type and autonomy of social participation, stratified by gender

From: Positive and negative influences of social participation on physical and mental health among community-dwelling elderly aged 65–70 years: a cross-sectional study in Japan

  Males Females Interaction
  Na Mean (SE)    P b Na Mean (SE)    P b
Volunteer groups
 Non-participation 3,995 46.66 (0.20)    0.430 5,568 46.17 (0.20) *   0.004 p = 0.421
 Very/rather obligatory 341 46.93 (0.39)     298 46.11 (0.41)     
 Rather voluntary 379 46.84 (0.38)     567 47.06 (0.33) *    
 Very voluntary 372 47.19 (0.38)     522 46.76 (0.34)     
Sports groups
 Non-participation 3,627 46.59 (0.20) *   <0.001 4,654 46.02 (0.20) * * <0.001 p = 0.650
 Very/rather obligatory 144 46.42 (0.56)     158 46.56 (0.53)     
 Rather voluntary 493 47.21 (0.34)     757 46.97 (0.30) *    
 Very voluntary 811 47.93 (0.30) *    1,361 47.10 (0.26)   *   
Hobby clubs
 Non-participation 3,230 46.58 (0.20) *   <0.001 3,674 46.02 (0.20) * * <0.001 p = 0.190
 Very/rather obligatory 144 46.14 (0.56)     173 46.68 (0.51)     
 Rather voluntary 720 46.64 (0.30)   *   1,122 46.68 (0.27) *    
 Very voluntary 983 47.63 (0.28) * *   1,962 46.97 (0.25)   *   
Senior citizens’ clubs
 Non-participation 4,531 46.75 (0.20)    0.317 6,350 46.27 (0.20)    0.351 p = 0.240
 Very/rather obligatory 298 46.64 (0.41)     302 45.73 (0.41)     
 Rather voluntary 175 45.87 (0.51)     204 46.72 (0.48)     
 Very voluntary 85 47.07 (0.72)     91 46.22 (0.69)     
Neighborhood community associations
 Non-participation 2,557 46.60 (0.21)    0.251 3,169 45.92 (0.21) * * <0.001 p = 0.014
 Very/rather obligatory 1,692 46.82 (0.24)     2,623 46.66 (0.22) *    
 Rather voluntary 566 46.80 (0.33)     869 47.16 (0.29)   *   
 Very voluntary 257 47.38 (0.44)     274 46.27 (0.42)     
Cultural groups
 Non-participation 4,301 46.67 (0.20)    0.051 5,294 46.19 (0.20) * * 0.003 p = 0.540
 Very/rather obligatory 132 45.99 (0.58)     205 46.41 (0.48)     
 Rather voluntary 304 47.49 (0.41)     673 46.88 (0.31) *    
 Very voluntary 357 47.12 (0.39)     773 46.90 (0.30)   *   
  1. The data in this table are adjusted for age, family size, BMI, comorbidities, smoking, alcohol intake, depression and cognitive functioning
  2. aThe total N varies slightly between each group as a result of missing data
  3. bThis is by use of an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for differences in mean scores
  4. * P<0.05 with the Bonferroni correction method