Skip to main content

Table 3 Adjusted mean (standard error) for the Mental Health Component Summary Score for the type and frequency of social participation, stratified by gender

From: Positive and negative influences of social participation on physical and mental health among community-dwelling elderly aged 65–70 years: a cross-sectional study in Japan

  Males Females Interaction
  Na Mean (SE) P b Na Mean (SE)    P b
Volunteer groups
 Non-participation 4,151 48.44 (0.17) 0.582 5,723 47.62 (0.18)    0.064 p = 0.243
 Yearly 334 48.30 (0.34)   451 48.02 (0.31)     
 Monthly 346 48.19 (0.34)   487 48.12 (0.31)     
 Weekly or more 204 48.82 (0.42)   222 48.23 (0.41)     
Sports groups
 Non-participation 3,702 48.33 (0.17) 0.078 4,713 47.56 (0.18) *   <0.001 p = 0.682
 Yearly 290 48.57 (0.37)   152 47.43 (0.48)     
 Monthly 487 48.88 (0.30)   651 48.02 (0.28)     
 Weekly or more 555 48.79 (0.29)   1,353 48.28 (0.23) *    
Hobby clubs
 Non-participation 3,352 48.38 (0.17) 0.467 3,754 47.49 (0.18) * * <0.001 p = 0.383
 Yearly 504 48.46 (0.29)   511 47.90 (0.30)     
 Monthly 826 48.44 (0.25)   1,832 47.94 (0.22) *    
 Weekly or more 350 48.88 (0.34)   789 48.55 (0.26)   *   
Senior citizens’ clubs
 Non-participation 4,596 48.41 (0.17) 0.444 6,407 47.65 (0.17)    0.089 p = 0.596
 Yearly 311 48.21 (0.35)   338 47.90 (0.34)     
 Monthly or more 141 48.92 (0.49)   137 48.65 (0.50)     
Neighborhood community associations
 Non-participation 2,988 48.39 (0.17) 0.554 3,914 47.53 (0.18) *   0.009 p = 0.108
 Yearly 1,431 48.37 (0.21)   2,370 48.01 (0.20) *    
 Monthly 484 48.76 (0.30)   414 47.63 (0.32)     
 Weekly or more 112 48.34 (0.54)   78 48.25 (0.65)     
Cultural groups
 Non-participation 4,405 48.41 (0.17) 0.968 5,436 47.65 (0.18)    0.001 p = 0.071
 Yearly 261 48.49 (0.38)   490 47.17 (0.31) * *   
 Monthly 273 48.35 (0.37)   718 48.23 (0.27) *    
 Weekly or more 101 48.20 (0.57)   218 48.58 (0.41)   *   
  1. The data in this table are adjusted for age, family size, BMI, comorbidities, smoking, alcohol intake, depression and cognitive functioning
  2. aThe total N varies slightly between each group as a result of missing data
  3. bThis is by use of an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for differences in mean scores
  4. * P<0.05 with the Bonferroni correction method