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Table 2 Adjusted mean (standard error) for the Physical Health Component Summary Score for the type and frequency of social participation, stratified by gender

From: Positive and negative influences of social participation on physical and mental health among community-dwelling elderly aged 65–70 years: a cross-sectional study in Japan

  Males Females Interaction
  Na Mean (SE)    P b Na Mean (SE)    P b
Volunteer groups
 Non-participation 4,151 46.69 (0.20)    0.708 5,723 46.19 (0.20) *   0.004 p = 0.244
 Yearly 334 46.58 (0.40)     451 46.77 (0.35)     
 Monthly 346 46.78 (0.39)     487 46.98 (0.35) *    
 Weekly or more 204 47.19 (0.48)     222 47.10 (0.47)     
Sports groups
 Non-participation 3,702 46.58 (0.20) *   0.001 4,713 46.05 (0.20) * * <0.001 p = 0.934
 Yearly 290 46.99 (0.42)     152 46.63 (0.54)     
 Monthly 487 47.33 (0.35)     651 47.06 (0.32) *    
 Weekly or more 555 47.59 (0.34) *    1,353 47.14 (0.26)   *   
Hobby clubs
 Non-participation 3,352 46.57 (0.20) * * 0.002 3,754 46.03 (0.20) * * <0.001 p = 0.844
 Yearly 504 46.44 (0.34)     511 46.23 (0.34)     
 Monthly 826 47.26 (0.29) *    1,832 46.82 (0.25) *    
 Weekly or more 350 47.57 (0.39)   *   789 46.92 (0.30)   *   
Senior citizens’ clubs
 Non-participation 4,596 46.74 (0.20)    0.115 6,407 46.27 (0.20)    0.932 p = 0.531
 Yearly 311 46.04 (0.41)     338 46.17 (0.39)     
 Monthly or more 141 46.18 (0.57)     137 46.13 (0.57)     
Neighborhood community associations
 Non-participation 2,988 46.66 (0.20)    0.793 3,914 46.07 (0.21) * * <0.001 p = 0.029
 Yearly 1,431 46.82 (0.25)     2,370 46.51 (0.23) *    
 Monthly 484 46.55 (0.35)     414 47.33 (0.36)   *   
 Weekly or more 112 46.88 (0.63)     78 46.11 (0.74)     
Cultural groups
 Non-participation 4,405 46.67 (0.20)    0.366 5,436 46.19 (0.20)    0.010 p = 0.553
 Yearly 261 46.93 (0.44)     490 46.84 (0.35)     
 Monthly 273 46.56 (0.43)     718 46.74 (0.31)     
 Weekly or more 101 47.72 (0.66)     218 47.04 (0.47)     
  1. The data in this table are adjusted for age, family size, BMI, comorbidities, smoking, alcohol intake, depression and cognitive functioning
  2. aThe total N varies slightly between each group as a result of missing data
  3. bThis is by use of an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for differences in mean scores
  4. * P<0.05 with the Bonferroni correction method