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Table 1 Crude mean (standard deviation) for physical and mental health component summary scores among the study population, by covariates (n = 12,132)

From: Positive and negative influences of social participation on physical and mental health among community-dwelling elderly aged 65–70 years: a cross-sectional study in Japan

  n Physical Health Component Summary Mental Health Component Summary
Mean (SD)        P value Mean (SD)         P value
Gender
 Male 5,126 49.08 (6.69)        0.731a 51.17 (6.00)         <0.001a
 Female 7,006 49.13 (6.68)        50.58 (6.00)        
Age at survey
 65-67 5,798 49.27 (6.52)        0.012a 50.75 (5.97)         0.178a
 68-70 6,334 48.96 (6.82)        50.90 (6.04)        
Family size
 1 1,775 48.41 (7.24) * * *     <0.001b 49.93 (6.65) * * * *     <0.001b
 2 6,291 49.29 (6.49) *       51.12 (5.86) *       
 3 2,493 49.10 (6.69)   *      50.76 (5.92)   *      
 ≥4 1,478 49.14 (6.76)    *     50.71 (5.92)    *     
 Missing 95 49.72 (6.46)        51.70 (4.64)     *    
Body mass index
 Normal 8,798 49.63 (6.31) * *      <0.001b 50.91 (5.91) *        <0.001b
 Thin 1,009 49.02 (6.89) *   *     49.75 (6.62) * *      
 Overweight 2,225 47.09 (7.56)   * * *    51.02 (6.04)   *      
 Missing 100 48.98 (7.17)     *    50.10 (6.22)        
Number of chronic diseases under medical treatment
 None 4,852 50.17 (6.04) * * *     <0.001b 51.18 (5.55) * * *      <0.001b
 1 2,716 49.27 (6.41) *    * *   50.55 (6.34) *       
 2 2,515 48.47 (6.89)   *   *   * 50.78 (5.97)   *      
 ≥3 2,049 47.16 (7.65)    *   * * 50.43 (6.57)    *     
Smoking
 Never-smoker 6,809 49.31 (6.54) * *      0.003b 50.86 (5.87) *        0.002b
 Ex-smoker 3,551 48.90 (6.72) *       50.99 (5.95)   *      
 Current smoker 1,555 48.79 (7.13)   *      50.30 (6.76) * *      
 Missing 217 48.62 (6.94)        50.93 (5.18)        
Frequency of alcohol consumption
 None 4,737 48.53 (7.15) * * *     <0.001b 50.41 (6.35) * * *      <0.001b
 Social 2,679 49.26 (6.60) *       50.87 (5.73) *    * *   
 Occasional 1,890 49.56 (6.23)   *      51.10 (5.61)   *     *  
 Daily 2,768 49.64 (6.13)    *     51.36 (5.85)    * *    *
 Missing 58 49.05 (7.03)        48.59 (6.69)      * * *
Depression
 Absent 9,338 49.89 (5.98) * *      <0.001b 51.97 (4.92) * *       <0.001b
 Present 2,577 46.31 (8.17) *   *     46.69 (7.58) *   *     
 Missing 217 48.57 (6.56)   * *     50.65 (5.93)   * *     
Cognitive functioning
 Intact 10,587 49.57 (6.38) *       <0.001b 51.28 (5.61) *        <0.001b
 Poor 1,524 45.94 (7.80) *       47.68 (7.50) *       
 Missing 21 48.64 (7.10)        49.37 (9.39)        
  1. aDifferences between two groups were analyzed using the t test
  2. bDifferences between three or more groups were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA)
  3. * P<0.05 with multiple comparison test by the Tukey method