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Table 1 Characteristics of the study participants with and without ADs and POA for health care

From: Advance directives and power of attorney for health care in the oldest-old – results of the AgeQualiDe study

Characteristic Study participants with and without ADs (n = 678) Study participants with and without POA (n = 666)
Individuals with ADs (n = 486) Individuals without ADs (n = 192) Test values p Individuals with POA (n = 455) Individuals without POA (n = 211) Test values p
Age  
 Years, mean (SD) 88.6 (2.9) 88.8 (3.1) t = 0.652 0.676 88.6 (2.9) 88.8 (3.0) t = 0.717 0.474
Gender; n (%)  
 Female 327 (67.3) 126 (65.6) χ2 = 0.171 0.679 308 (67.7) 137 (64.9) χ2 = 0.496 0.481
 Male 159 (32.7) 66 (43.4) 147 (32.3) 74 (65.1)
Educationa; n (%)  
 Low 251 (51.6) 121 (63.0) χ2 = 7.194 0.027 239 (52.5) 125 (59.2) χ2 = 2.686 0.261
 Medium 163 (33.5) 49 (25.5) 149 (32.7) 58 (27.5)
 High 72 (14.8) 22 (11.5) 67 (14.7) 28 (13.3)
Family status; n (%)  
 Single 33 (6.8) 12 (6.2) χ2 = 2.893 0.408 27 (5.9) 17 (8.1) χ2 = 1.814 0.612
 Married 123 (25.3) 46 (24.0) 116 (25.5) 49 (23.2)
 Divorced 26 (5.3) 5 (2.6) 20 (4.4) 12 (5.7)
 Widowed 304 (62.6) 129 (67.2) 292 (64.2) 133 (63.0)
Living situation; n (%)  
 Private household, alone 246 (50.6) 110 (57.3) χ2 = 3.692 0.158 224 (49.2) 124 (58.8) χ2 = 8.032 0.018
 Private household, with others (partner, relative, etc.) 153 (31.5) 58 (30.2) 146 (32.1) 64 (30.3)
 Assisted living/nursing home/retirement home 87 (17.9) 24 (12.5) 85 (18.7) 23 (10.9)
Subjective Cognitive Decline; n (%)  
 Yes 301 (61.9) 118 (61.5) χ2 = 0.047 0.977 276 (60.7) 131 (62.1) χ2 = 0.132 0.936
MMSEb,c  
 Score, mean (SD) 28.1 (1.8) 27.6 (1.9) t = −3.045 0.002 28.1 (1.7) 27.6 (1.9) t = −3.506 0.001
Self-rated healthd,e  
 EQ VAS score, mean (SD) 62.1 (18.9) 63.3 (18.6) t = 0.737 0.461 62.5 (19.0) 62.0 (18.3) t = −0.286 0.775
Depressionf,g; n (%)  
 Yes 73 (15.1) 24 (12.5) χ2 = 0.746 0.388 63 (13.9) 31 (14.7) χ2 = 0.037 0.787
Frailtyh
 CSHA CFS score; mean (SD) 3.8 (1.4) 3.8 (1.4) U = 46,378.500 0.902 3.8 (1.4) 3.8 (1.3) U = 47,419.000 0.796
Basic ADLi,j
 Barthel Index score; mean (SD) 92.6 (12.9) 93.2 (12.2) U = 45,808.500 0.714 92.8 (13.1) 92.2 (12.7) U = 45,469.500 0.286
Instrumental ADLk  
 IADL score; mean (SD) 6.2 (1.9) 6.3 (1.9) U = 44,498.500 0.333 6.2 (1.9) 6.3 (1.9) U = 46,996.000 0.653
  1. AD advance directives, ADL activitities of daily living, CSHA CFS Canadian Study of Health and Aging Clinical Frailty Scale, EQ VAS EQ visual analogue scale, IADL instrumental activities of daily living, MMSE Mini-Mental-State Examination, POA power of attorney, U Mann-Whitney U
  2. aaccording to the new CASMIN educational classification [21]
  3. bmissing data for n = 14 (2.1%) participants in the analysis for ADs and n = 13 (2.0%) in the analysis for POA
  4. cThe higher the MMSE score, the better the cognition [18]
  5. dmissing data for n = 8 (1.2%) participants in the analysis for ADs and n = 8 (1.2%) in the analysis for POA
  6. eThe higher the EQ VAS score, the better the self-rated health [27, 28]
  7. fmissing data for n = 2 (0.3%) participants in the analysis for ADs n = 2 (0.3%) in the analysis for POA
  8. ga score ≥ 6 on the Geriatric Depression Scale [25, 26]
  9. hThe higher the CSHA CFS score, the stronger the frailty [24]
  10. imissing data for n = 1 (0.1%) participants in the analysis for ADs and n = 2 (0.3%) in the analysis for POA
  11. jThe higher the score, the better the functioning in basic ADL [22]
  12. kThe higher the score, the better the functioning in IADL [23]
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