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Table 3 Process evaluation on intervention and implementation strategies

From: Evaluation of a technology-enhanced integrated care model for frail older persons: protocol of the SPEC study, a stepped-wedge cluster randomized trial in nursing homes

Topic Data Source/Analysis Measurement Points Unit of Analysis
Recruitment of cluster [Qualitative analysis]
- Measurement from documentation of recruitment & allocation process by research team
During recruitment of clusters Nursing home
Delivery to clusters [Quantitative analysis]
- Measurement of intervention fidelity across its components: in-service training; care planning; case conferences with assistant & case conferences without support; coordination of care; supporting & tracking through ICT
During and after each component Nursing home & Resident
- Measurement of receipt in target population from the cloud-based SPEC computerized system T2, T3 Resident
[Qualitative analysis]
- Measurement from interviews with onsite SPEC coordinators in charge of case management about what intervention is delivered and why
After T3 Nursing home
Response of clusters [Quantitative analysis]
- Measurement of standardized questionnaire items sent to participants along with other follow-up measurements
After T3 Nursing home
[Qualitative analysis]
- Measurement from documents and interview data about target population’s experience of and response to the intervention.
During and after each component Nursing home
Recruitment and reach-in of individuals [Quantitative analysis]
- Measurement from documents and participant list
T0  
- Quantitative comparison of those receiving vs. not receiving the intervention T0, T1, T2, T3 Nursing home & Resident
[Qualitative analysis]
- Measurement from interviews with those who recruited the participants
During and after each component Nursing home & Resident
Response of individuals [Quantitative analysis]
- Measurement from standardized questionnaire of individuals’ perceptions of the intervention and uptake of trial components. (TAM, questionnaire for process evaluation)
T1 + 1 month; after T3 Nursing home
[Qualitative analysis]
- Measurement from observational and interview data about target population’s experience of and response to the intervention (documents, web data, telephone calls, audiotape of case conferences, etc.)
During and after each component Nursing home
Context [Quantitative analysis]
- Measurement from project manager’s documents and from standardized questionnaire to assess organizational and structural characteristics of nursing home
Before T1; after T3 Nursing home
[Qualitative analysis]
- Measurement from policy documents or interviews (semi-structured interviews to assess “care as usual” at baseline and at end of study)
Before T1; during and after each component; after T3 Nursing home
Implementation strategies [Quantitative analysis]
- Measurement of quantitative data from web and documents
During and after each component Nursing home
[Qualitative analysis]
- Measurement from project manager’s documents and interview data about target population’s experience of and response to the facilitation strategies
During and after each component Nursing home