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Table 2 Overview of the outcome variables, measures, and observation points

From: Evaluation of a technology-enhanced integrated care model for frail older persons: protocol of the SPEC study, a stepped-wedge cluster randomized trial in nursing homes

Variable Data Source/Instrument Measurement Points Unit of Analysis
Primary Outcomes
Quality of Care interRAI LTCF quality measures (composite score) T0 (baseline), T1, T2, T3 Resident
Secondary Outcomes: Patient-Related
Quality of Care interRAI LTCF quality measures (individual score) T0 (baseline), T1, T2, T3 Resident
Care Needs Number of triggered clinical action points of interRAI LTCF T0 (baseline), T1, T2, T3 Resident
Functional Health Bathel index; Mini-Mental Status Examination; Patient Health Questionnaire T0 (baseline), T1, T2, T3 Resident
Quality of Life EuroQol(EQ)-5; interRAI HRQoL; interRAI self-reported QoL (SQoL) T0 (baseline), T1, T2, T3;
T1 & T3 (SQoL)
Resident
Patient Satisfaction Client Satisfaction Questionnaire T1 & T3 Resident
Health Care Utilization Hospital admissions; emergency department visits Every three months Resident
Costs Questionnaire on the cost; direct and indirect costs Every three months Resident
Other Outcomes: Care Staff/Organization-Related   
Empowerment Psychological Empowerment Instrument T1 & T3 Nursing Home
Communication Satisfaction Communication Satisfaction Questionnaire T1 & T3 Nursing Home
Organizational Commitment Organizational Commitment Questionnaire T1 & T3 Nursing Home
Job Satisfaction Job Satisfaction Scale T1 & T3 Nursing Home
Technology/Innovation Acceptance Modified Technology Acceptance Model Questionnaire T1 + 1 month & T3 Nursing Home