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Table 4 Stratification by sex, age and cognitive status effects associations between geriatric syndromes, chronic conditions and disability

From: Disability in long-term care residents explained by prevalent geriatric syndromes, not long-term care home characteristics: a cross-sectional study

   Sex Stratified Models Age Stratified Models Cognitive Status-Stratified Models
  Model 1 Females (n = 54,953) Males (n = 22,212) Age 65-74 (n = 7,859) Age 75-84 (n = 25,703) Age 85-94 (n = 36,676) Age 95–105 (n = 6,927) No cognitive impairment (n = 18,426) Cognitive impairment present (n = 58,739)
Prevalent Geriatric Syndromes
Balance impairment 5.69 (5.51, 5.87) 5.73 (5.52, 5.93) 5.51 (5.28, 5.74) 5.94 (5.57, 6.31) 5.71 (5.49, 5.93) 5.46 (5.25, 5.68) 5.42 (5.00, 5.85) 5.55 (5.31, 5.80) 5.95 (5.75, 6.16)
Bowel incontinence 4.53 (4.38, 4.68) 4.43 (4.26, 4.60) 4.77 (4.57, 4.97) 5.00 (4.66, 5.33) 4.61 (4.41, 4.82) 4.46 (4.28, 4.65) 3.98 (3.65, 4.32) 4.60 (4.35, 4.86) 5.43 (5.26, 5.60)
Cognitive status
Intact/borderline Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
Mild/moderate impairment 1.67 (1.55, 1.79) 1.69 (1.55, 1.83) 1.67 (1.46, 1.88) 1.14 (0.85, 1.43) 1.51 (1.31, 1.70) 1.88 (1.71, 2.04) 1.86 (1.50, 2.22) N/A N/A
Moderate-severe/severe impairment 5.27 (5.10, 5.44) 5.40 (5.21, 5.59) 4.94 (4.67, 5.21) 4.21 (3.81, 4.61) 5.16 (4.91, 5.41) 5.57 (5.34, 5.79) 5.35 (4.88, 5.81) N/A N/A
Hearing impairment
None Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
Hearing impaired 0.03 (−0.08, 0.14) 0.02 (−0.12 0.15) 0.07 (−0.12, 0.26) −0.13 (−0.71, 0.45) −0.04 (−0.26, 0.18) −0.04 (−0.18, 0.11) 0.26 (0.002, 0.51)* 0.43 (0.14, 0.72) 0.08 (−0.04, 0.20)
Missing data 0.66 (−0.15, 1.46) 0.33 (−0.67, 1.34) 1.21 (−0.09, 2.52) 1.85 (−0.79, 4.49) 0.005 (−1.21, 1.22) 1.18 (−0.21, 2.57) 0.007 (−3.06, 3.08) 0.32 (−1.27, 1.90) 0.74 (−0.16, 1.64)
Body mass index (BMI)
BMI < 18.5 Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
18.5 ≤ BMI ≤ 25 −0.54 (−0.68, −0.40) −0.56 (−0.71, −0.41) −0.52 (−0.84, −0.21) −0.03 (−0.57, 0.52) −0.46 (−0.72, −0.19) −0.67 (−0.86, −0.49) −0.55 (−0.89, −0.20) −0.80 (−1.16, −0.43) −0.51 (−0.66, −0.36)
25 < BMI <30 −0.87 (−1.03, −0.72) −0.83 (−0.99, −0.66) −1.04 (−1.36, −0.71) −0.69 (−1.24, −0.14)* −0.82 (−1.09, −0.54) −0.96 (−1.17, −0.76) −0.83 (−1.23, −0.44) −1.04 (−1.42, −0.67) −0.97 (−1.14, −0.80)
BMI ≥ 30 −0.59 (−0.75, −0.43) −0.52 (−0.69, −0.34) −0.89 (−1.24, −0.53) −0.68 (−1.23, −0.12)* −0.55 (−0.84, −0.26) −0.62 (−0.84, −0.41) −0.31 (−0.80, 0.18) −0.50 (−0.89,-0.10) −0.98 (−1.16, −0.81)
Pain
None Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
Less than daily pain 0.29 (0.19, 0.39) 0.25 (0.13, 0.36) 0.39 (0.22, 0.57) 0.26 (−0.03, 0.54) 0.18 (0.03, 0.34)* 0.34 (0.20, 0.48) 0.19 (−0.09, 0.48) 0.50 (0.30, 0.69) −0.007 (−0.12, 0.11)
Daily or severe daily pain 0.82 (0.70, 0.94) 0.78 (0.64, 0.92) 0.90 (0.68, 1.13) 0.70 (0.35, 1.05) 0.76 (0.57, 0.95) 0.86 (0.69, 1.02) 0.67 (0.28, 1.05) 0.81 (0.59, 1.04) 0.62 (0.47, 0.76)
Pressure ulcer 2.67 (2.52, 2.82) 2.70 (2.52, 2.87) 2.59 (2.32, 2.86) 3.03 (2.57, 3.48) 2.70 (2.45, 2.95) 2.63 (2.42, 2.84) 2.39 (1.98, 2.81) 3.34 (2.98, 3.71) 2.78 (2.62, 2.94)
Urinary incontinence 4.19 (4.04, 4.35) 4.30 (4.12, 4.49) 3.97 (3.76, 4.19) 4.00 (3.66, 4.34) 4.19 (3.98, 4.40) 4.28 (4.08, 4.49) 4.06 (3.66, 4.45) 4.48 (4.25, 4.71) 4.28 (4.10, 4.46)
Visual impairment
None Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
Moderate impairment 0.68 (0.59, 0.77) 0.68 (0.57, 0.78) 0.70 (0.55, 0.85) 0.73 (0.48, 0.98) 0.64 (0.50, 0.79) 0.67 (0.55, 0.79) 0.80 (0.53, 1.07) 0.53 (0.33, 0.73) 0.99 (0.88, 1.09)
Severe impairment 2.49 (2.33, 2.65) 2.45 (2.27, 2.63) 2.58 (2.30, 2.86) 2.82 (2.38, 3.26) 2.72 (2.45, 3.00) 2.39 (2.18, 2.60) 2.21 (1.83, 2.59) 1.98 (1.49, 2.48) 3.50 (3.32, 3.67)
Prevalent Chronic Conditions
Arthritis 0.08 (−.0003, 0.15) 0.09 (−0.007, 0.18) 0.04 (−0.09, 0.16) −0.16 (−0.40, 0.08) 0.10 (−0.03, 0.23) 0.12 (0.006, 0.23)* 0.13 (−0.11, 0.38) 0.13 (−0.05, 0.32) −0.10 (−0.18,−0.008)*
Asthma 0.10 (−0.04, 0.24) 0.09 (−0.06, 0.24) 0.17 (−0.11, 0.45) 0.03 (−0.42, 0.48) 0.10 (−0.14, 0.34) 0.20 (−0.001, 0.40) −0.11 (−0.62, 0.39) 0.07 (−0.22, 0.35) 0.08 (−0.07, 0.24)
Cancer −0.12 (−0.19, −0.04) −0.15 (−0.25, −0.06) −0.06 (−0.20, 0.06) −0.09 (−0.36, 0.18) −0.16 (−0.29, −0.03)* −0.08 (−0.20, 0.02) −0.17 (−0.43, 0.08) −0.20 (−0.38, −0.03)* −0.21 (−0.30, −0.12)
Chronic kidney disease 0.31 (0.22, 0.40) 0.26 (0.15, 0.37) 0.40 (0.24, 0.55) 0.39 (0.09, 0.68)* 0.32 (0.17, 0.48) 0.31 (0.18, 0.44) 0.32 (0.02, 0.62)* 0.22 (0.03, 0.41)* 0.26, (0.15, 0.36)
Coronary artery disease −0.13 (−0.21, −0.05) −0.11 (−0.20, −0.02)* −0.18 (−0.32, −0.04)* −0.29 (−0.56, −0.02)* −0.04 (−0.17, 0.10) −0.15 (−0.26, −0.04)* −0.19 (−0.44, 0.05) −0.25 (−0.43, −0.08) −0.17 (−0.26, −0.07)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease −0.07 (−0.17, 0.02) −0.09 (−0.21, 0.02) −0.04 (−0.20, 0.12) −0.09 (−0.38, 0.21) −0.30 (−0.47, −0.14) 0.08 (−0.05, 0.21) 0.11 (−0.21, 0.44) −0.16 (−0.35, 0.03) −0.23 (−0.34, −0.12)
Dementia −0.22 (−0.35, −0.10) −0.32 (−0.47, −0.17) 0.02 (−0.20, 0.23) −0.41 (−0.72, −0.10)* −0.39 (−0.61, −0.17) −0.10 (−0.29, 0.08) 0.21 (−0.16, 0.59) −0.25 (−0.43, −0.06) 0.23 (0.06, 0.40)
Diabetes −0.06 (−0.14, 0.02) −0.03 (−0.13, 0.07) −0.12 (−0.25, 0.01) −0.24 (−0.49, 0.009) −0.10 (−0.23, 0.03) −0.004 (−0.12, 0.12) 0.32 (0.04, 0.60)* −0.34 (−0.52, −0.16) −0.12 (−0.21, −0.03)*
Epilepsy 0.47 (0.32, 0.61) 0.61 (0.44, 0.78) 0.20 (−0.03, 0.44) 0.47 (0.16, 0.77) 0.36 (0.14, 0.58) 0.60 (0.37, 0.84) −0.05 (−0.77, 0.67) 0.13 (−0.23, 0.49) 0.62 (0.46, 0.79)
Heart failure 0.36 (0.27, 0.46) 0.36 (0.25, 0.47) 0.37 (0.20, 0.53) 0.31 (−0.009, 0.63) 0.41 (0.24, 0.58) 0.35 (0.22, 0.48) 0.34 (0.06, 0.61)* 0.47 (0.29, 0.65) 0.20 (0.09, 0.31)
Limb paralysis or amputation 1.78 (1.63, 1.93) 1.81 (1.63, 2.00) 1.79 (1.55, 2.02) 1.59 (1.27, 1.91) 1.93 (1.70, 2.17) 1.77 (1.55, 1.99) 1.57 (1.11, 2.04) 2.54 (2.24, 2.83) 1.44 (1.27, 1.60)
Mood disorder 0.30 (0.22, 0.38) 0.32 (0.23, 0.42) 0.26 (0.12, 0.41) −0.10 (−0.33, 0.14) 0.20 (0.08, 0.33) 0.44 (0.33, 0.55) 0.38 (0.12, 0.64) 0.42 (0.23, 0.60) 0.15 (0.06, 0.24)
Parkinson’s disease 1.75 (1.63, 1.87) 1.79 (1.63, 1.95) 1.72 (1.53, 1.91) 1.61 (1.25, 1.97) 1.87 (1.69, 2.06) 1.66 (1.46, 1.86) 1.66 (1.09, 2.23) 2.18 (1.89, 2.47) 1.54 (1.41, 1.67)
Peripheral vascular disease 0.03 (−0.10, 0.16) 0.11 (−0.05, 0.27) −0.10 (−0.31, 0.11) −0.24 (−0.65, 0.17) 0.01 (−0.21, 0.23) 0.13 (−0.06, 0.31) 0.001 (−0.44, 0.45) −0.18 (−0.43, 0.06) −0.03 (−0.18, 0.13)
Psychiatric conditions other than depression and dementia −0.42 (−0.50, −0.33) −0.39 (−0.49, −0.29) −0.46 (−0.62, −0.31) −0.61 (−0.84, −0.39) −0.38 (−0.52, −0.24) −0.35 (−0.48, −0.23) −0.20 (−0.49, 0.09) −0.65 (−0.83, −0.46) −0.39 (−0.48, −0.30)
Stroke 0.46 (0.38, 0.55) 0.48 (0.37, 0.58) 0.45 (0.29, 0.60) 0.39 (0.13, 0.66) 0.48 (0.34, 0.63) 0.45 (0.32, 0.58) 0.56 (0.28, 0.83) 0.68 (0.49, 0.86) 0.35 (0.25, 0.44)
  1. Model 1: Adjusted for resident age, sex, marital status, pre-admission neighborhood income quintile, number of days since admission to long-term care home; includes random intercept for long-term care homes
  2. N/A Not applicable; variable not included in indicated model
  3. Reference: Variable category is the reference group for all other categories within that variable
  4. * p-value <0.05
  5. p-value <0.01
  6. p-value <0.0001