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Table 3 Geriatric syndromes and chronic conditions associated with disability in long-term care residents

From: Disability in long-term care residents explained by prevalent geriatric syndromes, not long-term care home characteristics: a cross-sectional study

  Unadjusted Bivariate Regressions Model 1§
  Estimate (95% CI) Estimate (95% CI)
Prevalent Geriatric Syndromes
  Balance impairment 10.48 (10.34, 10.60) 5.69 (5.51, 5.87)
  Bowel incontinence 10.46 (10.37, 10.55) 4.53 (4.38, 4.68)
 Cognitive status
  Intact/borderline Reference Reference
  Mild/moderate impairment 3.89 (3.76, 4.01) 1.67 (1.55, 1.79)
  Moderate- severe/severe impairment 11.73 (11.58, 11.87) 5.27 (5.10, 5.44)
 Hearing impairment
  None Reference Reference
  Hearing impaired 1.73 (1.55, 1.90) 0.03 (−0.08, 0.14)
  Missing data −0.56 (−1.80, 0.67) 0.66 (−0.15, 1.46)
  Body mass index (BMI)   
  BMI < 18.5 Reference Reference
  18.5 ≤ BMI ≤ 25 −2.02 (−2.24, −1.80) −0.54 (−0.68, −0.40)
  25 < BMI <30 −3.49 (−3.72, −3.26) −0.87 (−1.03, −0.72)
  BMI ≥ 30 −3.74 (−3.98, −3.50) −0.59 (−0.75, −0.43)
 Pain
  None Reference Reference
  Less than daily pain −0.70 (−0.85, −0.56) 0.29 (0.19, 0.39)
  Daily or severe daily pain −0.12 (−0.29, 0.04) 0.82 (0.70, 0.94)
  Pressure ulcer 6.47 (6.23, 6.72) 2.67 (2.52, 2.82)
  Urinary incontinence 10.50 (10.40, 10.61) 4.19 (4.04, 4.35)
 Visual impairment
  None Reference Reference
  Moderate impairment 3.09 (2.97, 3.22) 0.68 (0.59, 0.77)
  Severe impairment 7.62 (7.40, 7.84) 2.49 (2.33, 2.65)
Prevalent Chronic Conditions
  Arthritis −0.66 (−0.78, −0.54) 0.08 (−.0003, 0.15)
  Asthma −0.71 (−0.94, −0.48) 0.10 (−0.04, 0.24)
  Cancer −1.23 (−1.36, −1.11) −0.12 (−0.19, −0.04)
  Chronic kidney disease 0.06 (0.08, 0.20) 0 .31 (0.22, 0.40)
  Coronary artery disease −0.86 (−0.98, −0.74) −0.13 (−0.21, −0.05)
  Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease −1.39 (−1.54, −1.25) −0.07 (−0.17, 0.02)
  Dementia 3.39 (3.22, 3.55) −0.22 (−0.35, −0.10)
  Diabetes −0.09 (−0.21, 0.04) −0.06 (−0.14, 0.02)
  Epilepsy 2.17 (1.94, 2.41) 0.47 (0.32, 0.61)
  Heart failure −0.24 (−0.38, −0.11) 0.36 (0.27, 0.46)
  Limb paralysis or amputation 4.49 (4.29, 4.70) 1.78 (1.63, 1.93)
  Mood disorder 0.53 (0.41, 0.65) 0.30 (0.22, 0.38)
  Parkinson’s disease 2.87 (2.66, 3.07) 1.75 (1.63, 1.87)
  Peripheral vascular disease −0.14 (−0.34, 0.07) 0.03 (−0.10, 0.16)
  Psychiatric conditions other than depression and dementia −1.35 (−1.48, −1.22) −0.42 (−0.50, −0.33)
  Stroke 1.85 (1.73, 1.98) 0.46 (0.38, 0.55)
Random Effects
   √ψ N/A 1.58 (1.50, 1.68)
   √θ N/A 4.90 (4.84, 4.96)
Derived Estimates
   R 2 N/A 0.627
   ρ N/A 0.095
  1. Reference: Variable category is the reference group for all other categories within that variable
  2. p-value <0.01
  3. p-value <0.0001
  4. §Model 1: Adjusted for resident age, sex, marital status, pre-admission neighborhood income quintile, number of days since admission to long-term care home; includes random intercept for long-term care homes
  5. ψ: Square root of between-long-term care home variance
  6. θ: Square root of within-long-term care home variance
  7. The null model of disability containing only random LTCH intercepts and no explanatory resident or LTCH variables had a within-LTCH variance of 66.91 and a between-LTCH variance of 4.16; variances from all multivariable models were compared to these values to estimate proportion of variance explained (R 2)
  8. R 2: The proportional reduction in the estimated total residual variance compared to the null model (Model 1)
  9. ρ: Proportion of variance that is explained by LTCH characteristics = ψ/(ψ + θ)
  10. N/A: Not applicable because each coefficient in this column from distinct unadjusted bivariate regression with its own √ψ, √θ, R 2 and ρ