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Table 2 Outcomes of the EMPOWER intervention by cognitive status

From: Use of the EMPOWER brochure to deprescribe sedative-hypnotic drugs in older adults with mild cognitive impairment

Primary outcome All (n = 261)
(n, %)
MCI (n = 122) (n, %) Normal cognition (n = 139) (n, %) Univariable OR (95% CI) Multivariable OR (95% CI)a
Cessation 92 (35.2) 39 (32.0) 53 (38.1) 0.76 [.46–1.27] .79 [.45–1.38]
Dose Reduction 28 (10.7) 16 (13.1) 12 (8.6) 1.60 [.72–3.53] 2.04 [.86–4.83]
Cessation + Dose Reduction 120 (45.9) 55 (45.1) 65 (46.8) .94 [.57–1.52] 1.07 [.62–1.83]
Process Outcomes
 Improvement in knowledge 157 (60.2) 75 (61.5) 82 (59.0) 1.11 [.68–1.82] 1.06 [.62–1.80]
 Change in beliefs 147 (56.3) 67 (54.9) 80 (57.6) .89 [.54–1.47] .84 [.48–1.43]
 Improved self-efficacy for tapering 144 (55.2) 68 (55.7) 76 (54.7) 1.04 [.64–1.70] .89 [.52–1.54]
 Discussed intervention with a physician 102 (39.1) 43 (35.2) 59 (42.6) .73 [.44–1.22] .75 [.43–1.32]
 Discussed intervention with a pharmacist 55 (21.1) 26 (21.3) 29 (20.8) 1.02 [.57–1.86] .89 [.46–1.72]
 Experienced withdrawal symptoms during cessation 31 (11.9) 12 (9.8) 19 (13.7) .69 [.32–1.49] .60 [.27–1.35]
  1. aAnalyses adjusted for living arrangement, education, anxiety as an indication for benzodiazepine treatment and baseline self-efficacy
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