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Table 1 Comparison of health-deficits between frail and non-frail participants defined using the Frailty Index and Fried criteria

From: Prevalence of frailty in Canadians 18–79 years old in the Canadian Health Measures Survey

Variable Accumulation of Deficits Fried frailty
Not frail
(n = 10,042)
Frail
(n = 953)
Not frail
(n = 6,871)
Frail
(n = 482)
Age 43.94 (0.35) 57.98 (0.80)c 44.67 (0.42) 47.32 (1.13)e
Sex (% male) 4946 (49.3%) 497 (52.2%) 3506 (51.0%) 166 (34.5%)e
Diabetesa 317 (3.3%) 348 (36.6%)c 352 (5.1%) 52 (10.8%)e
Thyroid problema 599 (5.9%) 206 (21.7%)c 443 (6.5%) 57 (11.8%)d
Cancera 403 (4.0%) 181 (19.0%)c 304 (4.4%) 47 (9.8%)e
Strokea 69 (0.7%) 44 (4.6%)c 58 (0.8%) 14 (2.9%)d
Heart diseasea 253 (2.5%) 229 (24.0%)c 284 (4.1%) 46 (9.5%)e
Arthritisa 1266 (12.6%) 515 (54.1%)c 982 (14.3%) 160 (33.3%)e
Persistent cougha 1258 (12.5%) 354 (37.1%)c 954 (13.9%) 92 (19.2%)d
Known kidney dysfunctiona 99 (1.00%) 94 (9.9%)c 109 (1.6%) 23 (4.7%)e
Poor health a 788 (7.8%) 520 (54.6%)c 624 (9.1%) 172 (35.6%)e
Poor health compared to 1 year agoa 1113 (11.1%) 426 (44.7%)c 833 (12.1%) 139 (28.8%)e
COPDa 38 (0.4%) 72 (7.5%)c 47 (0.7%) 15 (3.1%)e
Asthmaa 770 (7.7%) 245 (25.7%)c 602 (8.8%) 59 (12.3%)
Liver diseasea 220 (2.2%) 92 (9.6%)c 199 (2.9%) 16 (3.3%)
Trouble sleepinga 4712 (47.0%) 708 (74.2%)c 3238 (47.1%) 304 (63.1%)e
Resting HR (beats/min)a 68.21 (0.30) 68.97 (0.72) 67.61 (0.29) 69.35 (0.61)e
Systolic BP (mmHg)a 111.41 (0.40) 120.80 (1.46)c 112.43 (0.69) 113.32 (1.37)
Diastolic BP (mmHg)a 71.33 (0.21) 71.96 (0.75) 71.77 (0.41) 70.54 (1.02)e
eGFR (ml/min) 106.05 (0.47) 91.43 (1.21)c 103.90 (0.61) 104.65 (1.66)
Albumin (g/L)a 44.79 (0.17) 44.16 (0.29)c 45.26 (0.15) 43.49 (0.43)e
Haemoglobin (g/L) 142.51 (0.46) 140.04 (0.96)c 143.09 (0.46) 138.84 (1.07)e
Calcium (mmol/L) 2.41 (0.00) 2.43 (0.01)c 2.41 (0.00) 2.39 (0.01)e
Phosphate (mmol/L) 1.25 (0.01) 1.28 (0.02)c 1.23 (0.00) 1.23 (0.01)e
RBC count (10-12/L)a 4.66 (0.01) 4.60 (0.05)b 4.67 (0.02) 4.54 (0.03)e
RBC distribution width (%)a 12.69 (0.04) 13.38 (0.09)c 12.51 (0.03) 12.92 (0.09)d
Aspartate Aminotransferase (U/L)a 27.94 (0.37) 33.80 (0.90)c 28.31 (0.29) 26.92 (0.72)d
HbA1C (%)a 5.53% (0.02%) 6.45% (0.09%)c 5.67% (0.04%) 5.89% (0.07%)e
Plasma glucose (mmol/L)a 4.99 (0.02) 6.38 (0.15)c 5.08 (0.03) 5.43 (0.12)e
  1. aindicates variables included in the Frailty Index. b P < 0.05 for Non-frail vs. frail for frailty index. c P < 0.001 for non-frail vs. frail for frailty index. d P < 0.05 for Non-frail vs. frail for frailty index. e P < 0.001 for non-frail vs. frail for Fried criteria Categorical variables are displayed as frequency (%) and continuous variables are shown as mean (standard deviation). Frailty was defined as having 3–5 of the Fried criteria. COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, HR heart rate, BP blood pressure, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, RBC red blood cell