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Table 2 Comparison of survivors and non-survivors using age-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models

From: Long-term mortality in older patients discharged after acute decompensated heart failure: a prospective cohort study

Characteristics Survivors Non-survivors Age-adjusted analysisa P value
  n = 224 n = 254 HR [95%CI]  
Socio-demographic characteristics
 Age >85 years 88 (39.0) 134 (53) 1.49 [1.17–1.91] 0.01
 Male sex 63 (28.1) 92 (36.2) 1.32 [1.02–1.72] 0.03
 Living arrangements (n = 220/244)     
 Lives alone 188 (85.5) 198 (81.1) 1  
 Institutionalised 32 (14.5) 46 (18.9) 1.17 [0.84–1.61] 0.35
 Current or former smoker (n = 211/242) 53 (25.1) 57 (23.6) 1.00 [0.74–1.34] 0.99
Medical status
 Co-morbidities (past or current):     
 Arteritis (n = 207/234) 19 (9.2) 34 (14.5) 1.28 [0.89–1.85] 0.18
 Myocardial infarction (n = 220/251) 36 (16.4) 61 (24.3) 1.27 [0.95–1.69] 0.11
 Stroke (n = 218/245) 20 (9.2) 31 (12.7) 1.29 [0.86–1.83] 0.24
 Anaemia (n = 209/233) 44 (21.1) 72 (30.9) 1.34 [1.02–1.77] 0.04
 Hypertensionb (n = 223/254) 166 (74.4) 188 (74.0) 0.96 [0.72–1.27] 0.76
 Cardiac arrhythmia (n = 215/245) 141 (65.6) 172 (70.2) 1.02 [0.77–1.35] 0.87
 Diabetes (n = 218/253) 43 (19.7) 41 (16.2) 0.93 [0.66–1.31] 0.70
 Systolic blood pressure, mmHg (n = 210/249)c 150 [135–170] 141 [121–162] 0.83 [0.73–0.96] 0.01
 Number of drugs 7 [5–9] 7 [5–9]   
  ≥ 5 drugs per day 171 (76.3) 211 (83.1) 1.26 [0.91–1.75] 0.17
 Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (n = 100/102)     
  < 24 (good quality of life) 29 (29.0) 25 (24.5) 1 0.69
 [24–45] (intermediate quality of life) 46 (46.0) 51 (50.0) 1.16 [0.72–1.88]  
  > 45 (poor quality of life) 25 (25.0) 26 (25.5) 1.27 [0.73–2.21]  
Laboratory parameters at admission
 Sodium, mmol/L (n = 282/188) 138 [135–141] 138 [135–141] 0.99 [0.97–1.01] 0.43
 Haemoglobin, g/dL (n = 212/247) 12.5 [11.3–13.7] 12.1 [10.9–13.4] 0.97 [0.92–1.04] 0.40
 Creatinine clearance, mL/minuted (n = 218/250)     
  ≥ 60 117 (53.7) 96 (38.4) 1  
 [30–60] 83 (38.1) 113 (45.2) 1.28 [0.97–1.68] 0.08
  ≤ 30 18 (8.3) 41 (16.4) 1.81 [1.25–2.61] <0.01
Nutritional parameters
 Body mass index, Kg/m2 (n = 146/166)     
  < 19 2 (1.4 8 (4.8) 2.30 [1.11–4.74] 0.03
 [19–21[ 5 (3.4) 13 (7.8) 1.50 [0.84–2.67] 0.19
 [21–23[ 14 (9.6) 25 (15.1) 1.50 [0.98–2.31] 0.08
  ≥ 23 125 (85.6) 120 (72.3) 1  
 MNA-SF score (n = 69/81)     
  ≥ 12 (well-nourished) 33 (47.8) 25 (30.9) 1  
 [8–12[(at risk) 31 (44.9) 42 (51.9) 1.64 [0.99–2.70] 0.05
  < 8 (malnourished) 5 (7.2) 14 (17.3) 3.01 [1.52–5.97] <0.01
 Recent weight loss >3 Kg (<3 months) (n = 201/226) 22 (10.9) 42 (18.6) 1.59 [1.22–2.06] <0.01
 Non-solid nutrition (blended or minced) (n = 215/238) 31 (14.4) 51 (21.4) 1.60 [0.94–1.76] 0.11
Function and mobility
 Number of impaired ADL items (n = 201/226)e 1 [0–4] 2 [0–5] 1.10 [1.05–1.17] <0.01
 ADL score <12, (n = 201/226) 106 (52.7) 162 (71.7) 1.61 [1.20–2.16] <0.01
 Timed get-up-and-go >20 sf, (n = 178/210) 125 (70.2) 171 (81.4) 1.49 [1.05–2.11] 0.03
Cognition
 MMSE ≤17, severe impairment (n = 221/251) 38 (17.2) 59 (23.5) 1.26 [0.94–1.69] 0.12
Depression     
 GDS score ≤5 (n = 143/148) 71 (49.7) 71 (48.0) 0.96 [0.70–1.33] 0.81
  1. HR, hazards ratio; CI, confidence interval; MNA-SF, Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form; ADL, activities of daily living scale; MMSE, Mini Mental State Examination; GDS, Geriatric Depression Scale
  2. aHazards ratios and confidence intervals were estimated using Cox proportional models adjusted for age (≤85 years versus >85 years)
  3. bHypertension was defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg or treatment for hypertension
  4. cHazards ratios and confidence intervals per increase by 1 standard deviation
  5. dCreatinine clearance was calculated using the abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula, glomerular filtration rate (mL/min/1.73 m2) = 186.3 × [creatinine (μmol/L) /88.4] -1.154 × [Age (years)]-0.203 × 0.742 (if female) × 1.21 (if black)
  6. eHazards ratios and confidence intervals per each additional impaired ADL item
  7. fTimed Get-Up-and-Go test >20 s or patient unable to perform the test