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Table 2 Muscle co-activation index (%) of mean normalized sEMG activity (%MVC) during gait

From: Age-related differences in muscle co-activation during locomotion and their relationship with gait speed: a pilot study

Gait cycle Muscle pair Young Middle-aged Elderly
(n = 15) (n = 15) (n = 16)
Stance phase (%)
Initial contact (0-2%) RA:ES 20.32 ± 5.29 13.20 ± 8.62 7.40 ± 2.93**†
  RA:MF 23.71 ± 7.00 17.20 ± 5.24 4.69 ± 2.00**††
  RF:BF 17.39 ± 7.34 22.60 ± 8.17 27.72 ± 6.75*
  VMO:BF 16.73 ± 5.55 19.53 ± 7.54 24.45 ± 5.79*
  GMED:ADD 18.02 ± 3.34 20.63 ± 5.64 21.78 ± 4.90
  TA:mGCM 14.05 ± 6.42 14.44 ± 3.89 18.49 ± 7.50
Loading response (2-12%) RA:ES 10.90 ± 5.81 3.65 ± 2.44 2.35 ± 1.51*
  RA:MF 7.19 ± 5.88 4.17 ± 2.14 2.24 ± 1.62*
  RF:BF 4.35 ± 1.47 4.76 ± 1.35 7.35 ± 3.28*†
  VMO:BF 3.27 ± 1.74 4.09 ± 1.15 5.76 ± 1.72**†
  GMED:ADD 4.17 ± 1.07 5.17 ± 1.34 6.44 ± 2.26
  TA:mGCM 3.97 ± 1.66 4.56 ± 1.36 4.99 ± 1.47
Mid-stance (12-31%) RA:ES 3.65 ± 1.74 3.08 ± 1.63 1.52 ± 0.71*†
  RA:MF 3.44 ± 1.89 2.54 ± 1.76 1.66 ± 0.99*
  RF:BF 2.19 ± 1.62 2.87 ± 0.87 7.22 ± 1.06
  VMO:BF 1.83 ± 1.06 1.88 ± 0.71 2.65 ± 1.45
  GMED:ADD 1.43 ± 0.87 1.96 ± 0.77 4.67 ± 2.14**††
  TA:mGCM 1.77 ± 0.80 1.79 ± 0.82 1.90 ± 0.74
Terminal stance (31-50%) RA:ES 1.57 ± 0.53 1.37 ± 0.68. 1.17 ± 0.70
  RA:MF 1.73 ± 0.90 1.71 ± 0.78 1.26 ± 0.34
  RF:BF 2.86 ± 1.38 2.85 ± 0.95 3.37 ± 2.27
  VMO:BF 1.94 ± 1.01 2.17 ± 0.79 2.70 ± 1.11
  GMED:ADD 1.65 ± 0.73 2.39 ± 0.67 2.90 ± 1.49*
  TA:mGCM 0.99 ± 0.18 1.10 ± 0.35 3.18 ± 0.50
Pre-swing (50-62%) RA:ES 2.35 ± 1.39 2.32 ± 1.27 1.81 ± 1.31
  RA:MF 2.21 ± 1.24 2.01 ± 1.21 1.93 ± 1.17
  RF:BF 2.96 ± 1.33 3.07 ± 1.50 5.67 ± 2.27*
  VMO:BF 2.95 ± 1.57 2.88 ± 1.01 3.95 ± 1.16
  GMED:ADD 2.22 ± 1.03 3.36 ± 0.83 5.34 ± 1.44
  TA:mGCM 2.82 ± 1.06 2.99 ± 0.72 3.60 ± 1.41
Swing phase (%)
Initial swing (62-75%) RA:ES 3.28 ± 1.26 2.98 ± 0.96 1.03 ± 0.38*
  RA:MF 3.25 ± 1.45 2.98 ± 1.23 2.01 ± 0.34
  RF:BF 2.31 ± 1.28 2.61 ± 1.21 3.16 ± 0.97
  VMO:BF 1.87 ± 1.21 2.44 ± 1.48 2.87 ± 1.42
  GMED:ADD 1.47 ± 1.05 2.89 ± 1.15 2.98 ± 1.32
  TA:mGCM 2.42 ± 1.22 2.27 ± 1.08 1.69 ± 0.96
Mid-swing (75-87%) RA:ES 5.91 ± 2.62 4.00 ± 1.03 1.86 ± 1.24**†
  RA:MF 5.32 ± 2.10 3.87 ± 1.81 2.21 ± 0.48**†
  RF:BF 3.04 ± 1.56 3.69 ± 1.21 5.82 ± 2.12**
  VMO:BF 2.50 ± 2.15 3.00 ± 1.75 4.23 ± 1.63*
  GMED:ADD 2.10 ± 1.08 3.01 ± 1.47 3.92 ± 1.08
  TA:mGCM 1.78 ± 1.04 3.06 ± 1.36 4.27 ± 0.31**†
Terminal swing (87-100%) RA:ES 2.76 ± 1.20 2.17 ± 1.05 1.20 ± 0.37*
  RA:MF 2.49 ± 1.29 2.30 ± 1.12 1.41 ± 0.21*
  RF:BF 3.21 ± 1.04 3.30 ± 1.20 4.92 ± 1.20*†
  VMO:BF 3.35 ± 1.29 3.40 ± 1.34 4.32 ± 1.31
  GMED:ADD 1.83 ± 1.12 1.99 ± 0.87 3.00 ± 1.24**††
  TA:mGCM 1.84 ± 1.24 2.04 ± 1.12 4.92 ± 2.15**††
  1. Values are expressed as the number or mean ± standard deviation
  2. RA Rectus abdominis, ES Erector spinae, MF Multifidus, RF Rectus femoris, BF Biceps femoris, VMO Vastus medialis oblique, GMED Gluteus medius, ADD Adductor longus, TA Tibialis anterior, mGCM the medial part of Gastrocnemius medialis
  3. * Difference from the young (p < 0.05), ** Difference from the young (p < 0.01), † Difference from the middle-aged (p < 0.05), †† Difference from the middle-aged (p < 0.05)