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Table 2 Characteristics of older people according to their HRQL

From: Health-related quality of life and associated factors in functionally independent older people

Variables Health-Related Quality of Life
Poor
(n = 292)
Good
(n = 342)
p-value
Sex
 Men 125 (44) 160 (56) 0.316
 Women 167 (48) 182 (52)  
Age in years, mean (SD) 75.1 (6.6) 74.6 (6.7) 0.378
Level of education
 Primary or lower 250 (48) 269 (52) 0.028
 Secondary or higher 42 (37) 72 (63)  
 Missing 0 1  
Monthly family income (€)
  ≤ 1,500 euros 178 (52) 167 (48) 0.002
  ≥ 1,501 euros 53 (37) 92 (63)  
 Missing 61 83  
Living arrangements
 Alone 77 (48) 82 (52) 0.502
 With others 215 (45) 259 (55)  
 Missing 0 1  
Number of diagnosed chronic diseases
 0-2 176 (39) 272 (61) <0.0001
  ≥ 3 116 (62) 70 (38)  
Number of drugs consumed daily
 0-2 164 (39) 258 (61) <0.0001
  ≥ 3 128 (60) 84 (40)  
GDS score
 Not depressive symptoms (<5) 235 (42) 321 (58) <0.0001
 Depressive symptoms (≥5) 57 (73) 21 (27)  
Falls in the previous 12 months
 0 231 (45) 284 (55) 0.206
  ≥ 1 61 (51) 58 (49)  
Sensory impairment
 Yes 94 (58) 69 (42) 0.001
 No 198 (42) 273 (58)  
Smoker
 Yes 19 (45) 23 (55) 0.921
 No 272 (46) 319 (54)  
 Missing 1 0  
Physical activity in the previous 2 weeks
 Yes 232 (44) 299 (56) 0.007
 No 60 (58) 43 (42)  
Sleep quality
 Good 243 (44) 309 (56) 0.008
 Bad 49 (60) 33 (40)  
Nutrition pattern (STARU score)
 Good (<7) 268 (45) 331 (55) 0.006
 Bad (≥7) 24 (69) 11 (31)  
Cognitively stimulating activities
 Yes 274 (45) 334 (55) 0.016
 No 18 (69) 8 (31)  
Active leisure activities
 Yes 282 (46) 331 (54) 0.884
 No 10 (48) 11 (52)  
Social leisure activities
 Yes 252 (46) 300 (54) 0.596
 No 40 (49) 42 (51)  
Group social activities
 Yes 144 (42) 202 (58) 0.014
 No 147 (51) 139 (49)  
 Missing 1 1  
LSNS score
 High risk of social isolation (<12) 76 (54) 64 (46) 0.027
 Low risk of social isolation (≥12) 216 (44) 278 (56)  
Duke-UNC FSSQ score
 Low level of social support (≤32) 48 (67) 24 (33) 0.0002
 High level of social support (>32) 244 (43) 318 (57)  
STS
 Low social trust (≤5) 124 (60) 84 (40) <0.0001
 High social trust (>5) 168 (39) 258 (61)  
Self-perceived social life
Unsatisfactory 28 (65) 15 (35) 0.009
 Satisfactory 264 (45) 327 (55)  
Heating
 Yes 222 (44) 285 (56) 0.022
 No 70 (55) 57 (45)  
Obstacles inside their home
 Yes 35 (69) 16 (31) 0.001
 No 256 (44) 324 (56)  
 Missing 1 2  
Obstacles in the closest home environment
 Yes 57 (65) 31 (35) 0.0002
 No 234 (43) 309 (57)  
 Missing 1 2  
Self-perceived housing condition
 Good 265 (46) 313 (54) 0.734
 Poor 27 (48) 29 (52)  
Adequate community services
 Adequate 251 (48) 273 (52) 0.042
 Not adequate 41 (37) 69 (63)  
Shopping facilities within walking distance
 Yes 230 (45) 285 (55) 0.142
 No 62 (52) 57 (48)  
  1. Numbers are n (%) unless otherwise stated. Row percentages are presented. When there is missing data, frequencies do not add up to column totals
  2. GDS Geriatric Depression Scale, Duke-UNC FSSQ Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire, STS Social Trust Scale, LSNS Lubben Social Network Scale, STARU Screening Tool for Assessing Risk of Undernutrition
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