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Table 2 Agreement between graders identifying home hazards: Krippendorff’s alpha (n = 20 homes)

From: Evaluation of the Home Environment Assessment for the Visually Impaired (HEAVI): an instrument designed to quantify fall-related hazards in the visually impaired

Item Class Criteria for defining graded item as a hazard Rooms where item graded # of rooms with item Three-way comparison Expert vs Non-Expert Rater 1 Expert vs Non-Expert Rater 2 Non-Expert Rater 1 vs. Non-Expert Rater 2
KA value (95% CI) KA value (95% CI) KA value (95% CI) KA value (95% CI)
Handrails Accepted (KA >0.40)
Number of handrails E, S 2 0.89 (0.75–0.97) 0.91 (0.00–0.91) 0.82 (0.00–0.91) 0.92 (0.00–0.92)
Handrail perimeter <4 inches or >6.25 inches E, S 2 0.77 (0.57–0.92) 0.78 (0.00–0.89) 0.86 (0.00–0.86) 0.64 (0.00–0.88)
Loose handrails E, S 2 0.75 (0.37–0.94) 0.84 (0.00–0.84) 0.62 (0.00–0.81) 0.78 (0.00–0.78)
Portion of stairs without handrail E, S 2 0.64 (0.46–0.79) 0.66 (0.32–0.92) 0.77 (0.00–0.92) 0.52 (0.13–0.90)
No grab bars in tub/shower BA 1 0.58 (0.37–0.79) 0.44 (0.00–0.78) 0.90 (0.00–0.90) 0.36 (−0.07–0.79)
No grab bars at toilet BA 1 0.49 (0.16–0.81) 0.46 (−0.35–0.73) 0.49 (−0.01–0.83) 0.49 (−0.01–0.83)
Rejected (KA ≤ 0.40)
No grab bars at sink BA 1 0.09 (−0.46–0.55) −0.03 (−1.00–0.49) 0.33 (−0.56–0.78) −0.11 (−1.00–0.55)
Height of handrail <34 inches or >38 inches E, S 2 0.00 (N/A) 0.00 (N/A) 0.00 (N/A) 0.00 (N/A)
No contrast between handrails and walls S 1 −0.05 (−0.93–0.65) 0.00 (−1.00–0.00) −0.04 (−1.00–0.48) −0.09 (−1.00–0.64)
Floor Accepted (KA >0.40)
Cracked external steps E 1 1.00 (0.00–0.00) 1.00 (0.00–0.00) 1.00 (0.00–0.00) 1.00 (0.00–0.00)
Height of front step riser <4 inches or >7.75 inches E 1 0.87 (0.00–0.94) 0.81 (0.00–0.81) 1.00 (0.00–0.00) 0.81 (0.00–0.81)
Width of stairway <36 inches E, S 2 0.81 (0.69–0.93) 0.85 (0.00–0.93) 0.85 (0.00–0.93) 0.70 (0.32–0.93)
Width of hallway <36 inches H 1 0.79 (0.61–0.93) 0.68 (0.00–0.89) 1.00 (0.00–0.00) 0.68 (0.00–0.89)
Sloping external steps E 1 0.78 (0.00–0.89) 1.00 (0.00–0.00) 0.64 (−0.09–0.64) 0.64 (−0.09–0.64)
Width of doorway <32 inches or >48 inches E 1 0.78 (0.60–0.93) 0.68 (0.00–0.89) 1.00 (0.00–0.00) 0.68 (0.00–0.89)
Frayed/torn/folded carpeting BA, BR, D, H, K, L 6 0.76 (0.56–0.92) 0.71 (0.00–0.85) 0.71 (0.00–0.85) 0.76 (0.00–0.88)
Height of door threshold >0.5 inches BA, BR, D, E, H, K, L 7 0.73 (0.59–0.86) 0.82 (0.63–0.96) 0.73 (0.52–0.90) 0.77 (0.58–0.92)
Loose external steps E 1 0.73 (0.00–0.87) 0.64 (−0.08–0.64) 1.00 (0.00–0.00) 0.64 (−0.09–0.64)
Landing more narrow than doorway E 1 0.72 (0.00–0.86) 1.00 (0.00–0.00) 0.63 (−0.12–0.63) 0.63 (−0.12–0.63)
Unsecured rugs; rugs with curling edges BA, BR, D, H, K, L 6 0.68 (0.53–0.82) 0.89 (0.00–0.95) 0.64 (0.39–0.85) 0.58 (0.31–0.84)
Glossy or shiny finish BA, BR, D, H, K, L, S 7 0.65 (0.37–0.86) 0.78 (0.61–0.92) 0.48 (0.15–0.77) 0.66 (0.38–0.89)
Smooth finish (no traction) E, S 2 0.65 (0.36–0.88) 0.67 (0.00–0.84) 0.40 (−0.20–0.80) 0.76 (0.00–0.76)
Sloped ground on public sidewalk E 1 0.62 (0.38–0.86) 0.60 (0.00–0.87) 0.67 (0.00–0.84) 0.58 (0.00–0.86)
Floor covered with objects/cluttered (>50% clutter) BA, BR, D, H, K, L 6 0.60 (0.00–0.86) 0.79 (0.00–0.88) 0.56 (0.00–0.84) 0.42 (−0.14–0.87)
Height of stair riser <4 inches or >7.75 inches E, S 2 0.60 (0.40–0.78) 0.56 (0.26–0.85) 0.67 (0.35–0.92) 0.61 (0.30–0.84)
No contrast between door threshold and floor BA, BR, D, H, K, L 6 0.60 (0.43–0.76) 0.70 (0.46–0.90) 0.56 (0.30–0.78) 0.61 (0.40–0.83)
Depth of stair treads <10 inches E, S 2 0.57 (0.38–0.76) 0.45 (0.14–0.77) 0.53 (0.22–0.84) 0.72 (0.00–0.91)
No contrast between floors and fixtures E, S 2 0.55 (0.33–0.78) 0.43 (−0.03–0.77) 0.46 (0.04–0.79) 0.73 (0.00–0.87)
Landing only on one side of doorway E 1 0.54 (0.00–0.89) 0.63 (−0.111–0.63) 0.63 (−0.12–0.63) 0.63 (−0.12–0.63)
No non-skid rug/mat outside bathtub/shower BA 1 0.53 (0.23–0.82) 0.45 (−0.37–0.73) 0.70 (0.00–0.85) 0.32 (−0.36–0.77)
Landing <36 inches E 1 0.52 (0.21–0.76) 0.65 (0.00–0.83) 0.42 (−0.15–0.81) 0.62 (0.00–0.81)
No bathmat/non-skid strips in bathtub/shower BA 1 0.45 (0.18–0.69) 0.53 (0.05–0.88) 0.54 (0.07–0.88) 0.21 (−0.32–0.74)
Uneven dirt path on public sidewalk E 1 0.41 (0.04–0.78) 0.45 (−0.38–0.72) 0.30 (−0.39–0.77) 0.46 (−0.08–0.82)
Rejected (KA ≤ 0.40)
Stair nosing >1.5 inches E 1 0.48 (−0.29–0.74) 0.00 (−1.00–0.00) 0.00 (−1.00–0.00) 1.00 (0.00–0.00)
Cracked pavement on private path E 1 0.46 (0.12–0.80) 0.18 (−0.43–0.80) 0.79 (0.00–0.79) 0.44 (−0.41–0.72)
Sloped ground on private path E 1 0.46 (0.13–0.80) 1.00 (0.00–0.00) 0.13 (−0.53–0.78) 0.19 (−0.41–0.80)
Papers/books/towels/shoes/magazines/boxes/blankets/other objects in pathway BA, BR, D, H, K, L, S 7 0.40 (0.09–0.67) 0.63 (0.31–0.88) 0.26 (−0.03–0.54) 0.39 (0.09–0.64)
Broken tiles BA, BR, D, H, K, L 6 0.38 (−0.16–0.87) −0.01 (−1.00–0.49) 0.48 (−0.31–0.74) −0.02 (−1.00–0.49)
Exterior door swings over step with no landing E 1 0.38 (0.01–0.69) 0.59 (−0.02–0.80) 0.11 (−0.59–0.65) 0.58 (−0.04–0.79)
No contrast between stair treads and risers E, S 2 0.37 (−0.16–0.79) 0.00 (−1.00–0.00) −0.02 (−1.00–0.49) 0.47 (−0.33–0.74)
Uneven dirt path on private path E 1 0.34 (−0.21–0.78) −0.04 (−1.00–0.48) −0.12 (−1.00–0.63) 0.77 (0.00–0.77)
Cracked pavement on public sidewalk E 1 0.32 (−0.08–0.66) 0.21 (−0.60–0.80) 0.45 (−0.10–0.82) 0.44 (−0.41–0.72)
Loose bricks or paver stones on public sidewalk E 1 0.30 (−0.40–0.83) 0.00 (−1.00–0.00) 0.64 (−0.08–0.64) −0.04 (−1.00–0.48)
Loose electrical/phone cords on floor BA, BR, D, H, K, L 6 0.28 (−0.22–0.72) −0.02 (−0.97–0.75) 0.50 (0.07–0.85) 0.09 (−0.49–0.59)
No contrast between floors and furniture/obstacles BR, D, K, L 4 0.19 (−0.13–0.45) 0.18 (−0.13–0.48) 0.36 (0.04–0.68) −0.14 (−0.61–0.33)
No contrast between stair treads E, S 2 0.16 (−0.47–0.69) 0.00 (−1.00–0.00) −0.06 (−1.00–0.74) 0.35 (−0.51–0.78)
Walkway narrowed by obstacles/furniture BA, BR, D, K, L 5 0.15 (−0.64–0.82) 0.38 (−0.44–0.79) −0.02 (−1.00–0.66) 0.00 (−1.00–0.00)
Blankets/sheets on floor BR 1 0.09 (−0.46–0.54) 0.33 (−0.35–0.78) −0.09 (−1.00–0.73) −0.06 (−1.00–0.65)
Slippery floor (no traction with soled shoes) BA, BR, D, H, K, L 6 0.01 (−0.37–0.34) 0.08 (−0.22–0.37) −0.18 (−0.60–0.20) 0.11 (−0.46–0.64)
Carpet runners with curling edges BA, BR, D, H, K, L 6 0.00 (−0.67–0.50) 0.00 (N/A) 0.00 (−1.00–0.00) −0.29 (−1.00–0.57)
Interior door swings over step with no landing E 1 0.00 (−1.00–0.50) 0.00 (−1.00–0.00) 0.00 (−1.00–0.00) 0.00 (N/A)
Loose/torn coverings on treads S 1 0.00 (N/A) 0.00 (N/A) 0.00 (N/A) 0.00 (N/A)
Depth of front step tread <10 inches E 1 0.00 (N/A) 0.00 (N/A) 0.00 (N/A) 0.00 (N/A)
Loose bricks or paver stones on private path E 1 −0.02 (−1.00–0.74) 0.00 (N/A) −0.06 (−1.00–0.47) −0.04 (−1.00–0.48)
Lighting Accepted (KA >0.40)
Broken light fixture/missing bulbs E, S 2 1.00 (0.00–0.00) 1.00 (0.00–0.00) 1.00 (0.00–0.00) 1.00 (0.00–0.00)
Missing light fixture E, S 2 0.78 (0.61–0.92) 0.85 (0.00–0.92) 0.76 (0.00–0.88) 0.71 (0.00–0.90)
Exposed light bulbs BA, BR, D, H, K, L, S 7 0.76 (0.62–0.88) 0.77 (0.64–0.88) 0.74 (0.60–0.86) 0.75 (0.62–0.88)
Shadows on stairway E, S 2 0.76 (0.61–0.88) 0.72 (0.37–0.93) 0.85 (0.00–0.92) 0.70 (0.32–0.92)
Ambient light <300 lux BA, BR, D, E, H, K, L, S 8 0.67 (0.46–0.87) 0.58 (0.36–0.80) 0.63 (0.41–0.82) 0.83 (0.68–0.97)
Less than two light switches S 1 0.66 (0.24–0.92) 1.00 (0.00–0.00) 0.43 (−0.42–0.72) 0.43 (−0.42–0.72)
Switch required to turn on exterior light E 1 0.66 (0.45–0.87) 0.87 (0.00–0.87) 0.48 (−0.03–0.87) 0.62 (0.00–0.87)
Windows without sheer coverings BA, BR, D, H, K, L, S 7 0.53 (0.36–0.68) 0.41 (0.24–0.58) 0.65 (0.48–0.79) 0.49 (0.32–0.64)
Light switches only accessible from fully inside room BA, BR, D, H, K, L 6 0.52 (0.32–0.70) 0.52 (0.32–0.71) 0.53 (0.31–0.71) 0.51 (0.30–0.71)
No light source in bathtub/shower with curtains closed BA 1 0.41 (0.18–0.64) 0 .39 (−0.02–0.80) 0.51 (0.12–0.81) 0.32 (−0.08–0.71)
Rejected (KA ≤ 0.40)
No nightlight/flashlight near bed or for nighttime bathroom use BR 1 0.29 (0.09–0.50) 0.38 (0.03–0.72) 0.22 (−0.12–0.55) 0.21 (−0.11–0.52)
No light on path from bedroom to bathroom BR 1 0.12 (−0.19–0.43) 0.33 (−0.35–0.78) −0.28 (−0.84–0.29) 0.14 (−0.29–0.57)
Furniture Accepted (KA >0.40)
Seats without arm rests BR, D, K, L 4 0.63 (0.48–0.78) 0.75 (0.57–0.89) 0.55 (0.33–0.78) 0.60 (0.39–0.82)
Glossy/shiny finish of countertop K 1 0.50 (0.24–0.71) 0.48 (0.06–0.79) 0.48 (0.06–0.79) 0.54 (0.07–0.88)
Unstable furniture BR, D, K, L 4 0.41 (0.15–0.64) 0.51 (0.22–0.76) 0.48 (0.19–0.72) 0.16 (−0.26–0.52)
Other Accepted (KA >0.40)
No handle on step stool BR, K 2 0.67 (0.47–0.83) 0.91 (0.00–0.91) 0.51 (0.00–0.84) 0.40 (−0.20–0.85)
Inability to reach microwave with both feet on floor K 1 0.57 (0.03–0.89) 0.65 (−0.06–0.65) 0.46 (−0.36–0.73) 0.65 (−0.06–0.65)
Rejected (KA ≤ 0.40)
Step stool required to get onto bed BR 1 0.00 (N/A) 0.00 (N/A) 0.00 (N/A) 0.00 (N/A)
Inability to reach closet items or daily kitchen items with both feet on floor BR, K 2 −0.06 (−0.69–0.47) −0.04 (−1.00–0.74) −0.06 (−0.90–0.79) −0.07 (−0.96–0.64)
Total number of possible hazards per home 185
Accepted 119
Rejected 66
  1. BA = bathroom, BR = bedroom, D = dining room, E = entry way, H = hallway, K = kitchen, L = living room, S = stairs, KA = Krippendorff’s alpha, CI = confidence interval
  2. KA categories: 0.81–1.00 = almost perfect; 0.61–0.80 = substantial; 0.41–0.60 = moderate; 0.21–0.40 = fair; 0.00–0.20 = slight; <0.00 = poor 39
  3. Bold values indicate inadequate agreement
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