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Table 1 Characteristics of participants according to number of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the highest quartile

From: Prevalent peripheral arterial disease and inflammatory burden

Characteristics Total N = 878 Pro-inflammatory Burden Scorea P for trend
0 N = 302 1 N = 230 2 N = 131 ≥3 N = 215
PAD, ABI <0.90, n (%) 61 (6.95) 12 (3.97) 14 (6.09) 5 (3.82) 30 (13.95) <0.001
Demographics
 Age, years, mean ± SD 73.71 ± 5.87 72.82 ± 5.39 72.44 ± 5.13 74.22 ± 6.10 75.99 ± 5.87 <0.001
 Non-white race, n (%) 67 (7.63) 29 (9.60) 21 (9.13) 7 (5.34) 10 (4.65) 0.019
 High school or less, n (%) 217 (24.72) 56 (18.54) 59 (25.65) 40 (30.53) 62 (28.84) 0.003
Health status
 Self-rated health status, good/excellent, n (%) 753 (85.86) 275 (91.06) 201 (87.39) 111 (85.38) 166 (77.21) <0.001
 Body Mass Index (BMI), mean ± SD 27.32 ± 3.56 27.22 ± 3.17 27.06 ± 3.72 27.39 ± 3.57 27.69 ± 3.86 0.146
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHG), mean ± SD 139.09 ± 18.92 138.94 ± 18.44 138.60 ± 18.59 138.58 ± 18.06 140.13 ± 20.47 0.555
 Fasting blood glucose (mg/dL), mean ± SD 106.68 ± 24.90 105.20 ± 21.53 104.22 ± 22.69 109.37 ± 32.89 109.75 ± 25.53 0.027
 Total cholesterol (mg/dL), mean ± SD 194.58 ± 32.84 196.43 ± 32.52 196.78 ± 32.69 196.30 ± 36.28 188.59 ± 30.62 0.021
 HDL (mg/dL), mean ± SD 48.96 ± 14.65 51.05 ± 14.39 49.85 ± 15.46 48.35 ± 13.75 45.46 ± 14.11 <0.001
Medical conditions
 Myocardial infarction, n (%) 139 (15.83) 41 (13.58) 29 (12.61) 20 (15.27) 49 (22.79) 0.005
 Hypertension, n (%) 383 (43.62) 122 (40.40) 84 (36.52) 56 (42.75) 121 (56.28) <0.001
 Congestive heart failure, n (%) 36 (4.10) 7 (2.32) 5 (2.17) 4 (3.05) 20 (9.30) <0.001
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, n (%) 97 (11.05) 17 (5.63) 26 (11.30) 17 (12.98) 37 (17.21) <0.001
Diabetes status       0.002
 Diabetes, n (%) 142 (16.69) 39 (13.36) 25 (11.21) 24 (18.75) 54 (25.96)  
 Pre-diabetes, n (%) 310 (36.43) 114 (39.04) 79 (35.43) 44 (34.38) 73 (35.10)  
Medication use
 NSAID, n (%) 130 (15.51) 44 (15.28) 26 (11.82) 19 (15.45) 41 (19.81) 0.137
 Aspirin, n (%) 284 (33.89) 97 (33.68) 73 (33.18) 32 (26.02) 82 (39.61) 0.366
 Cox-II inhibitor, n (%) 63 (7.52) 20 (6.94) 11 (5.00) 10 (8.13) 22 (10.63) 0.090
 ACE inhibitors, n (%) 166 (19.81) 53 (18.40) 30 (13.64) 24 (19.51) 59 (28.50) 0.004
 Loop diuretics, n (%) 38 (4.53) 1 (0.35) 6 (2.73) 4 (3.25) 27 (13.04) <0.001
 Antidepressants, n (%) 55 (6.65) 15 (5.26) 13 (6.07) 3 (2.46) 24 (11.65) 0.022
Physical performance
 Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly score, mean ± SD 149.92 ± 69.95 155.79 ± 66.48 158.76 ± 67.01 147.00 ± 65.49 134.02 ± 77.68 <0.001
 Walking speed <0.8 meters/seconds, n (%) 28 (3.19) 7 (2.32) 3 (1.30) 3 (2.29) 15 (6.98) 0.004
 Average number of drinks/week, mean ± SD 4.52 ± 6.90 5.23 ± 7.20 4.78 ± 7.25 3.61 ± 5.82 3.82 ± 6.60 0.001
Smoking status       0.010
 Current smoker, n (%) 33 (3.76) 6 (1.99) 7 (3.04) 7 (5.34) 13 (6.05)  
 Past smoker, n (%) 514 (58.54) 172 (56.95) 134 (58.26) 74 (56.49) 134 (62.33)  
 Smoking pack-years, mean ± SD 18.97 ± 25.71 16.09 ± 23.86 18.09 ± 24.74 18.04 ± 22.40 24.53 ± 30.07 0.003
  1. aComposite variable summing number of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-6 SR, TNFα, TNFαSRI, TNFαSRII, CRP) in the highest quartile
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