Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 4 Walking adaptability

From: The efficacy of treadmill training with and without projected visual context for improving walking ability and reducing fall incidence and fear of falling in older adults with fall-related hip fracture: a randomized controlled trial

Outcome (n: AT, CT, UPT) INTERVENTION Difference among groups Mixed RM ANOVA T0, T1, T2
  AT CT UPT P value Effect size (ηp2) Time effect Group effect Time × Group
Obstacle effect (%)
 T1 (19,17,21) −18.00 ± 10.96 −21.06 ± 11.17 −24.34 ± 14.45 0.281a 0.046 F (1)=0.907 p=0.346 ηp2=0.019 F (2)=0.449 p=0.641 ηp2=0.018 F (2)=0.750 p=0.478 ηp2=0.030
 T2 (17,17,17) −21.48 ± 9.75 −24.38 ± 12.11 −21.63 ± 12.87 0.717a 0.014
Obstacle success rate (%)
 T1 (19,17,21) 100.0 (16.7–100.0) 100.0 (0.0–100.0) 83.3 (0.0–100.0) 0.132b - Z=−1.744b p=0.082 r=0.168 - X2 (2)=1.609b p=0.447
 T2 (17,17,17) 100.0 (33.3–100.0) 100.0 (16.7–100.0) 100.0 (33.3–100.0) 0.754b -
DTE- walking speed (%)
 T1 (18,17,21) −21.48 ± 18.13 −35.91 ± 18.56 −31.77 ± 15.52 0.046 a 0.110 F (1)=3.115 p=0.084 ηp2=0.062 F (2)=3.087 p=0.055 ηp2=0.116 F (2)=2.779 p=0.072 ηp2=0.106
 T2 (16,17,17) −22.85 ± 17.03 −32.20 ± 17.48 −19.83 ± 15.65 0.091a 0.097
DTE- subtractions (%)
 T1 (17,17,21) 4.8 (−100.0–208.0) 0.0 (−62.8–55.6) −4.8 (−100.0–58.8) 0.776b - Z= −0.413b p=0.686 r=0.040 - X2 (2)=3.771b p=0.152
 T2 (16,17,17) −7.3 (−100.0–120.2) 13.3 (−26.2–77.3) 9.4 (−100.0–677.9) 0.244b -
  1. Measures related to obstacle avoidance performance and dual-task effects (DTE) in the adaptability treadmill (AT) group, conventional treadmill (CT) group and usual physical therapy (UPT) group directly after (T1) and four weeks after (T2) intervention
  2. P values for group differences were obtained using
  3. aOne-Way ANOVA
  4. bKruskal-Wallis test with the effect of time analyzed using Wilcoxon signed rank test and the Time × Group effect using Kruskal-Wallis test over the change score from T1 to T2
  5. Significant differences among groups are presented in bold (p < 0.05)