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Table 3 General walking ability

From: The efficacy of treadmill training with and without projected visual context for improving walking ability and reducing fall incidence and fear of falling in older adults with fall-related hip fracture: a randomized controlled trial

Outcome (n: AT, CT, UPT) INTERVENTION Difference among groups Mixed RM ANOVA T0, T1, T2
  AT CT UPT P value Effect size (ηp2) Time effect Group effect Time × Group
POMA (0–28)
 T0 (19, 17, 21) 15.5 ± 2.9 15.6 ± 3.2 15.6 ± 4.4 0.997a 0.000 F (2)=83.423 p<0.001 ηp2=0.635 F (2)=0.257 p=0.775 ηp2=0.011 F (3.3)=0.484 p=0.712 ηp2=0.020
 T1 (19, 17, 21) 19.4 ± 2.1 19.6 ± 2.0 18.6 ± 3.5 0.188b 0.061
 T2 (17, 17, 17) 20.2 ± 2.4 20.6 ± 3.8 19.5 ± 3.7 0.444b 0.034
 T3 (8, 12, 14) 22.4 ± 3.8 23.6 ± 3.5 23.1 ± 3.6 0.367b 0.065
EMS (0–20)
 T0 (19, 17, 21) 11.2 ± 3.7 11.1 ± 3.3 10.7 ± 3.7 0.904a 0.004 F (2)=98.133 p<0.001 ηp2=0.672 F (2)=0.099 p=0.906 ηp2=0.004 F (2.9)=1.072 p=0.374 ηp2=0.043
 T1 (19, 17, 21) 15.3 ± 2.3 16.5 ± 1.5 15.2 ± 3.2 0.191b 0.061
 T2 (17, 17, 17) 16.2 ± 2.6 16.3 ± 2.4 16.3 ± 3.5 0.912b 0.004
 T3 (8, 12, 14) 17.1 ± 2.9 18.1 ± 1.8 17.6 ± 2.3 0.334b 0.070
TUG (s)
 T1 (19,17,21) 26.0 (13.5–60.7) 23.7 (13.6–48.9) 23.8 (13.3–79.9) 0.862c - Z=−4.134d p<0.001 r = 0.400 - X2 (2)=3.835d p=0.147
 T2 (17,17,17) 19.9 (11.9–49.3) 23.6 (10.4–88.9) 22.2 (10.4–42.2) 0.871c -
FAC (0–5)
 T0 (19, 17, 21) 2.0 (2.0–4.0) 2.0 (2.0–4.0) 2.0 (2.0–4.0) 0.110c - X2 (2)=81.0 p<0.001 - -
 ΔT1 (19, 17, 21) 1.0 (0.0–2.0) 2.0 (1.0–2.0) 1.0 (0.0–2.0) 0.003 c -
 ΔT2 (17, 17, 17) 1.0 (0.0–2.0) 2.0 (0.0–3.0) 1.5 (0.0–3.0) 0.039 c -
 ΔT3 (8, 12, 14) 1.5 (0.0–3.0) 2.0 (1.0–3.0) 2.0 (1.0–3.0) 0.417c -
Walking speed (m/s)
 T1 (19,17,21) 0.65 ± 0.22 0.74 ± 0.24 0.62 ± 0.20 0.219a 0.055 F (1)=7.421 p=0.009 ηp2=0.134 F (2)=0.369 p=0.693 ηp2=0.015 F (2)=3.053 p=0.057 ηp2=0.113
 T2 (17,17,17) 0.73 ± 0.20 0.72 ± 0.26 0.72 ± 0.25 0.984a 0.001
NEADL (0–66)
 T0 (18, 17, 21) 44.2 ± 9.7 42.5 ± 13.2 49.6 ± 10.9 0.133a 0.073 F (1)=28.180 p<0.001 ηp2=0.370 F (2)=0.700 p=0.501 ηp2=0.028 F (2)=2.828 p=0.069 ηp2=0.105
 T2 (17, 17, 17) 32.2 ± 16.4 36.9 ± 15.2 33.4 ± 18.6 0.267b 0.055
 T3 (8, 12, 14) 42.9 ± 11.7 42.0 ± 12.1 43.4 ± 11.5 0.748b 0.019
  1. Measures related to mobility, walking and daily functioning in the adaptability treadmill (AT) group, conventional treadmill (CT) group and usual physical therapy (UPT) group at baseline (T0), directly after (T1), four weeks after (T2) and 12 months (T3) after the intervention
  2. P values for group differences were obtained using
  3. aOne-Way ANOVA
  4. bANCOVA with baseline performance as covariate
  5. cKruskal-Wallis test
  6. dThe effect of time was analyzed using Wilcoxon signed rank test and the Time × Group effect using Kruskal-Wallis test over the change score from T1 to T2.
  7. Δ indicates change relative to baseline, which was evaluated over time using a Friedman test
  8. Significant differences among groups are presented in bold (p < 0.05)