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Table 2 Participant characteristics

From: The efficacy of treadmill training with and without projected visual context for improving walking ability and reducing fall incidence and fear of falling in older adults with fall-related hip fracture: a randomized controlled trial

  AT (n=24) CT (n=23) UPT (n=23) P value
Demographics
Age, years 82.9 ± 6.5 83.9 ± 5.5 83.3 ± 8.0 0.877a
Height, m 168.6 ± 9.6, n=21 166.8 ± 10.8, n=22 166.2 ± 8.3 0.691a
Body mass, kg 72.3 ± 14.7, n=21 71.4 ± 12.7 68.7 ± 16.7 0.695a
Gender, n male (%) 8 (33.3) 9 (39.1) 2 (8.7) 0.047 b
Medical information
Comorbidities n=23    
 Cardiovascular/respiratory diseases, n (%) 21 (91.3) 19 (82.6) 19 (82.6) 0.755b
 Gastrointestinal disorders, n (%) 2 (8.7) 4 (17.4) 5 (21.7) 0.598b
 Urogenital disorders, n (%) 6 (26.1) 3 (13.0) 0 (0.0) 0.034 b
 Musculoskeletal disorders, n (%) 9 (39.1) 5 (21.7) 5 (21.7) 0.353b
 Neurological disorders, n (%) 5 (21.7) 6 (26.1) 4 (17.4) 0.933b
 Psychiatric disorders, n (%) 1 (4.3) 2 (8.7) 3 (13.0) 0.865b
 Endocrine disorders, n (%) 6 (26.1) 8 (34.8) 11 (47.8) 0.346b
 Other, n (%) 0 (0.0) 1 (4.3) 0 (0.0) 1.000b
Medication use n=23    
 Vitamine D, n (%) 6 (26.1) 5 (21.7) 9 (39.1) 0.503b
 Antidepressants, n (%) 2 (8.7) 3 (13.0) 4 (17.4) 0.902b
 Benzodiazepines, n (%) 3 (13.0) 3 (13.0) 3 (13.0) 1.000b
 Antihypertensives, n (%) 17 (73.9) 15 (65.2) 16 (69.6) 0.945b
 Analgesics: None/Non-opioids/Opioids, n (%) 1 (4.3)/16 (69.6)/6 (26.1) 1 (4.3)/15 (65.2)/7 (30.4) 0 (0.0)/19 (82.6)/4 (17.4) 0.754c
Type of fracture     0.814b
 Cervical, n (%) 11 (45.8) 11 (47.8) 8 (34.8)  
 Trochanteric, n (%) 12 (50.0) 12 (52.2) 14 (60.9)  
 Subtrochanteric, n (%) 1 (4.2) 0 (0.0) 1 (4.3)  
Time since fracture, days 13 (7–65) 13 (6–63) 14 (7–79) 0.924c
Surgery 0.610b
 None, n (%) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (8.7)  
 Total hip replacement, n (%) 1 (4.2) 0 (0.0) 1 (4.3)  
 Hemiarthroplasty, n (%) 8 (33.3) 10 (43.5) 6 (26.1)  
 Intramedullary nail, n (%) 11 (45.8) 10 (43.5) 9 (39.1)  
 Dynamic hip screw, n (%) 4 (16.7) 2 (8.7) 5 (21.7)  
 Other, n (%) 0 (0.0) 1 (4.3) 0 (0.0)  
Pre-fracture functioning
Functional ambulation category, FAC [0–5] 5.0 (4.0–5.0) 5.0 (4.0–5.0) 5.0 (2.0–5.0) 1.000c
Living situation, n living independent (%) 21 (87.5) 16 (70.0) 18 (78.3) 0.312b
Ambulatory assistance
 Indoors, n (%) 5 (20.8) 5 (21.7) 6 (26.1) 0.939b
 Outdoors, n (%) 14 (58.3) 12 (52.2) 12 (52.2) 0.911b
Tolerated walking distance, n >1000 m (%) 8 (33.3) 9 (39.1) 14 (60.9) 0.138 b
Baseline functioning
Functional Ambulation Category, FAC [0–5] 2.0 (2.0–4.0), n=23 2.0 (2.0–4.0) 2.0 (2.0–4.0) 0.200c
Performance oriented mobility assessment, POMA [0–28] 15.6 ± 2.8 15.5 ± 3.6 15.6 ± 4.1 0.994a
Mini-Mental State Examination, MMSE [0–30] 25.0 (19.0–30.0), n=23 26.0 (22.0–30.0) 27.0 (22.0–29.0) 0.342c
  1. Abbreviations: AT: adaptability treadmill training group, CT: conventional treadmill training group, UPT: usual physical therapy group
  2. Reported as median (minimum-maximum)
  3. P values were obtained using
  4. aOne-Way ANOVA
  5. bFisher’s exact test
  6. cKruskal-Wallis test
  7. Significant differences among groups are presented in bold (p < 0.05)