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Table 1 Study assessment schedule

From: The efficacy of treadmill training with and without projected visual context for improving walking ability and reducing fall incidence and fear of falling in older adults with fall-related hip fracture: a randomized controlled trial

  T0 T1 T2 T3
Primary outcome measure related to general walking ability
Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA) Widely used tool for assessing mobility and fall risk in older people. The assessment examines several qualitative aspects of the locomotion pattern and carries the subject through positions and changes in positions, reflecting stability tasks that are related to daily activities. Each item is scored on a 2- or 3-point scale (0–1 or 0-1-2 points), resulting in a maximum score of 28 [24]. x x x x
Elderly Mobility Scale (EMS) Covers locomotion, balance and key position changes which are prerequisites to more complex activities of daily living by testing: lying to sitting, sitting to lying, sitting to standing, standing, gait, walking speed and functional reach. The maximum score possible, which represents independent mobility is 20, the minimum score is 0 [25]. x x x x
Timed Up-and-Go test (TUG) A measure of functional mobility. The participant is asked to rise from a standard chair, walk to a line on the floor 3 m away, turn, return and sit down again. The score given is the time taken in seconds to complete the test [26].   x x  
Functional Ambulation Category (FAC) A quick visual measurement of the independence of walking. The FAC distinguishes 6 levels of walking ability based on the amount of human assistance required [20, 21]. x x x x
10 m Walking Test (10MWT) Measures the walking speed over 10 m [27].   x x  
Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living (NEADL) Measures the performance of activities of daily living. The NEADL comprises 22 items divided into four sections: mobility, kitchen, domestic and leisure. Each item is given one of four responses (able 3 pt, able with difficulty 2 pt, able with help 1 pt, unable 0 pt) [28]. x   x x
Primary outcome measures related to walking adaptability
10 m Walking Test with obstacles (10MWTobstacle) This is a 10 m walk test with 3 obstacles in the walkway to evaluate obstacle avoidance during walking. Two obstacles of 5×20×10 cm [height× width× length] are placed at 2.5 and 7.5 m from the starting line and one obstacle of 10×20×5 cm is placed at 5 m from the starting line.   x x  
10 m Walking Test with cognitive task (10MWTcognitive) This is a 10 m walk test that is performed while participants subtract 3’s from a random number between 191 and 199. This test is performed to evaluate the cognitive dual-task effect of walking.   x x  
Secondary outcome measure, related to fear of falling
Falls Efficacy Scale International (FES-I) Measures confidence in performing a range of specific activities of daily living without falling. The scale consists of 20 items of which each is responded with one of the following answers: not at all concerned (1 pt), somewhat concerned (2 pt), fairly concerned (3 pt), very concerned (4 pt) [31]. x x x x
Secondary outcome measure, related to fall incidence
Monthly fall diary Falls and near falls are monitored monthly from T1 to T3 using a daily calendar diary for postal use [35].     x
Secondary outcome measures, related to general health
Visual Analogue Scale of perceived general health (VAS) Participants rate their presently perceived general health using a visual analogue scale (VAS) ranging from 0 (worst imaginable health state) to 100 (best imaginable health state). x x x x
Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Score - Quality of life (HOOS-Q) This subscale of the HOOS measures hip-related quality of life and consists of 4 questions. Standardized response options are given (5-point Likert scale) and each of the 4 questions is scored from 0 to 4; then a normalized score (100 indicating no symptoms and 0 indicating extreme symptoms) is calculated for the subscale [32].    x x
Trail Making Test – parts A and B (TMTa, TMTb) The TMT was performed to evaluate executive function, which comprises multiple cognitive processes (i.e., visual scanning, task shifting, planning and mental flexibility). Part A of the TMT consists of 25 circles distributed over an entire page and numbered 1 to 25. The participant is required to connect the circles with a pencil line as quickly as possible, beginning with 1 and proceeding in numerical sequence. Part B consists of 25 circles, numbered 1 to 13 and lettered from A to L. The participant is required to connect the circles, but alternating between numbers and letters and taking both series in ascending sequence. The score for the test was the number of seconds required for completion of each part [33]. x x x x