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Table 3 Adjusted Utilization and Costs After the Initial CDI Diagnosis Between Non-CDI and CDI Residents

From: Burden of Clostridium difficile-associated disease among patients residing in nursing homes: a population-based cohort study

  Non-CDI Residents CDI Residents
(N = 2,612) (N = 653)
N/Mean %/SD N/Mean %/SD P-value Std diff
2- months Follow-up All-cause Health Care Utilization
Medicare: Number of Claims
# inpatient claims 0.13 0.41 0.66 0.88 <0.001 77.03
# outpatient claims 1.39 2.27 1.57 2.62 0.1039 7.42
# SNF claims 0.33 0.80 0.85 1.31 <0.001 47.96
# HSP claims 0.15 0.57 0.20 0.58 0.06 8.29
# HHA claims 0.01 0.10 0.00 0.06 0.181 4.90
# DME claims 0.26 0.87 0.34 1.00 0.0633 8.48
# carrier claims 5.33 5.60 10.17 9.57 <0.001 61.71
# pharmacy visits among those with ≥1 pharmacy visit 7.62 7.02 5.50 6.91 <0.001 30.37
Medicaid: Number of Claims
# inpatient claims 0.08 0.40 0.23 0.56 <0.001 31.27
# long term care claims 3.01 4.28 2.50 4.53 0.0092 11.62
# Other therapy claims 3.82 7.88 6.10 9.57 <0.001 25.95
# pharmacy visits among those with ≥1 pharmacy visit 2.37 4.67 1.74 4.23 0.0009 14.17
2- months Follow-up All-cause Health Care Costs
Medicare:
Overall Costs
Inpatient stay costs $1435 $5664 $9678 $21206 <0.001 53.1
Outpatient costs $550 $1480 $527 $1292 0.6931 1.7
SNF costs $1452 $5049 $4939 $9091 <0.001 47.4
HSP costs $551 $2140 $610 $2202 0.5343 2.7
HHA costs $22 $474 $20 $391 0.918 0.4
DME costs $92 $412 $126 $457 0.0877 7.7
Carrier claims costs $835 $1882 $2463 $3677 <0.001 55.7
Pharmacy visit costs among those with ≥1 pharmacy visit $777 $914 $629 $963 0.0004 15.8
Total costs $5716 $10120 $18993 $27290 <0.001 64.5
Medicaid:
Overall Costs
Inpatient stay costs $316 $2807 $2715 $14083 <0.001 23.6
Long term care costs $6738 $5526 $5141 $5740 <0.001 28.4
Other therapy costs $696 $2337 $1590 $17513 0.1935 7.2
Pharmacy visit costs among those with ≥1 pharmacy visit $178 $650 $183 $809 0.8855 0.7
Total costs $7928 $7088 $9628 $24163 0.0757 9.5
Combined Medicare/Medicaid costs $13644 $11362 $28621 $33532 <0.001 59.8
  1. CDI Clostridium difficile infection, DME Durable Medical Equipment, HHA Home Health Agency, HSP, Hospital Specific Portion, SD standard deviation, Std. Diff standardized difference, SNF Skilled Nursing Facility