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Table 5 Statistical analysis (df, F-values and t-values)

From: Lower-extremity resistance training on unstable surfaces improves proxies of muscle strength, power and balance in healthy older adults: a randomised control trial

Variables 3 × 2 ANOVA Pre-post analysis (post-hoc)
Main effect: Time Main effect: Group Interaction effect: Time × Group M-SRT M-URT F-URT
df & F-value t-value
Questionnaires
 Falls efficacy scale – international F(1, 72) = 5.33 F(2, 72) = .43 F(2, 72) = .95    
Muscle strength       
 Isometric leg extension strength F(1, 72) = 76.66 F(2, 72) = .83 F(2, 72) = 3.91 t(26) = −5.17 t(25) = −6.92 t(21) = −3.39
 Hand grip strength F(1, 72) = 1.33 F(2, 72) = .53 F(2, 72) = .02    
Muscle power
 Chair rise test F(1, 72) = 51.53 F(2, 72) = 1.86 F(2, 72) = 3.84 t(26) = 4.71 t(25) = 3.16 t(21) = 4.48
 Chair rise test AIREX® F(1, 72) = 49.19 F(2, 72) = 1.00 F(2, 72) = 2.33 t(26) = 4.72 t(25) = 3.29 t(21) = 4.05
 Stair ascent time F(1, 72) = 5.97 F(2, 72) = .86 F(2, 72) = .18    
 Stair descent time F(1, 72) = 15.79 F(2, 72) = .10 F(2, 72) = .04    
 Stair ascent power F(1, 72) = 1.19 F(2, 72) = .61 F(2, 72) = .24    
 Stair descent power F(1, 72) = 10.29 F(2, 72) = .06 F(2, 72) = .42    
Proactive balance
 Timed up and go test F(1, 72) = 14.34 F(2, 72) = 1.59 F(2, 72) = .76    
 Functional reach test F(1, 72) = 51.13 F(2, 72) = 2.10 F(2, 72) = 2.77 t(26) = −3.67 t(25) = −3.39 t(21) = −4.92
 Functional reach test AIREX® F(1, 72) = 64.61 F(2, 72) = 2.16 F(2, 72) = 2.74 t(26) = −3.51 t(25) = −5.34 t(21) = −5.13
Dynamic steady-state balance
 Stride velocity F(1, 71) = 35.11 F(2, 71) = .08 F(2, 71) = .21    
 Stride velocity CV F(1, 71) = 1.13 F(2, 71) = .71 F(2, 71) = 1.42    
 Stride length F(1, 71) = 34.34 F(2, 71) = .59 F(2, 71) = .10    
 Stride length CV F(1, 71) = .38 F(2, 71) = 4.39 F(2, 71) = 2.34    
 Stride width F(1, 71) = 1.25 F(2, 71) = .94 F(1, 71) = .42    
 Stride width CV F(1, 71) = 7.59 F(2, 71) = .15 F(2, 71) = .83    
 Double support F(1, 71) = 5.56 F(2, 72) = .01 F(2, 72) = 1.13    
 Double support CV F(1, 71) = .38 F(2, 72) = .12 F(2, 72) = .49    
  1. K-W Kruskal-Wallis test; M-SRT machine based resistance training on stable surfaces; M-URT machine-based resistance training on unstable surfaces; F-URT free-weight resistance training on unstable surfaces