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Table 4 Statistical analysis (p-values and effect sizes)

From: Lower-extremity resistance training on unstable surfaces improves proxies of muscle strength, power and balance in healthy older adults: a randomised control trial

Variables 3 × 2 ANOVA Pre-post analysis (post-hoc)
Main effect: Time Main effect: Group Interaction effect: Time × Group M-SRT M-URT F-URT
p-value (effect size d) p-value (effect size d)
Questionnaires
 Falls efficacy scale – international .024 (.54) .428 (.22) .392 (.33)    
Muscle strength
 Isometric leg extension strength <.001 (2.07) .439 (.14) .024 (.66) <.001 (.30) <.001 (.55) <.001 (.32)
 Hand grip strength .253 (.27) .592 (.24) .979 (.06)    
Muscle power
 Chair rise test <.001 (1.67) .164 (.45) .026 (.65) <.001 (.74) .004 (.34) <.001 (.93)
 Chair rise test AIREX® <.001 (1.65) .416 (.31) .105 (.50) <.001 (.69) <.006 (.32) <.001 (.95)
 Stair ascent time .017 (.58) .428 (.31) .835 (.14)    
 Stair descent time <.001 (.94) .902 (.11) .959 (.06)    
 Stair ascent power .278 (.26) .546 (.26) .785 (.26)    
 Stair descent power .002 (.76) .943 (.09) .656 (.22)    
Proactive balance
 Timed up and go test <.001 (.89) .211 (.42) .460 (.29)    
 Functional reach test <.001 (1.68) .130 (.48) .069 (.56) .002 (.62) .002 (.60) <.001 (1.03)
 Functional reach test AIREX® <.001 (1.65) .123 (.31) .071 (.51) .002 (.61) <.001 (.73) <.001 (.99)
Dynamic steady-state balance
 Stride velocity <.001 (1.40) .992 (.20) .810 (.03)    
 Stride velocity CV .293 (.26) .248 (.40) .248 (.40)    
 Stride length <.001 (1.40) .559 (.28) .902 (.20)    
 Stride length CV .538 (.14) .016 (.70) .104 (.52)    
 Stride width .267 (.28) .394 (.32) .661 (.20)    
 Stride width CV .008 (.66) .864 (.01) .440 (.06)    
 Double support .021 (.54) .990 (.20) .329 (.32)    
 Double support CV .081 (.41) .781 (.16) .957 (.06)    
Reactive balance Friedman K-W K-W    
 Push and release test <.001 (1.46)
Chi2 = 25.94
.947 (.08)
Chi2 = .11
.503 (.26)
Chi2 = 1.38
   
  1. K-W Kruskal-Wallis test; M-SRT machine based resistance training on stable surfaces; M-URT machine-based resistance training on unstable surfaces; F-URT free-weight resistance training on unstable surfaces; Cohen’s d values ≤ .49 indicate small, .50 ≤ d ≤ .79 medium and ≥ .80 large effects