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Table 3 Descriptive values of the intervention programmes for pre- and post-testing

From: Lower-extremity resistance training on unstable surfaces improves proxies of muscle strength, power and balance in healthy older adults: a randomised control trial

Variables M-SRT (n = 27) ∆% M-URT (n = 26) ∆% F-URT (n = 22) ∆%
pre post pre post pre post
M SD M SD M SD M SD M SD M SD
Questionnaire
 Falls efficacy scale - international 20.2 3.9 20.0 4.3 −1 20.5 4.0 19.2 3.2 −6 20.1 4.4 18.5 3.0 −8
Muscle strength
 Isometric leg extension strength (N) 785 335 897 367 14 851 345 1071 359 26 867 366 995 400 15
 Hand grip strength (N) 296 83 293 71 −1 318 91 316 85 −1 306 73 301 81 −1
Muscle power
 Chair rise test (s) 10.1 2.7 8.3 2.2 −18 8.5 1.9 7.8 2.0 −8 9.4 1.9 7.8 1.5 −17
 Chair rise test AIREX® (s) 10.9 3.0 9.0 2.5 −18 9.6 2.8 8.7 2.2 −9 10.2 2.0 8.5 1.7 −16
 Stair ascent time (s) 3.9 0.8 3.6 0.7 −7 3.6 0.8 3.4 0.5 −4 3.8 0.8 3.5 0.6 −6
 Stair descent time (s) 3.1 0.8 2.9 0.6 −8 3.1 0.6 2.8 0.4 −10 3.1 0.9 2.8 0.5 −10
 Stair ascent power (W) 321.2 101.7 327.3 81.8 5 332.4 75.3 341.4 68.2 3 314.3 87.8 315.8 64.6 <1
 Stair descent power (W) 383.2 108.1 410.2 107.1 7 386.9 89.1 421.9 88.2 9 387.8 126.1 404.1 104.9 4
Proactive balance
 Timed up and go test (s) 5.7 1.2 5.3 1.0 −8 5.2 0.9 5.0 0.5 −4 5.4 1.1 5.1 0.7 −6
 Functional reach test (cm) 36.9 4.9 40.2 5.5 9 38.1 4.5 40.7 4.4 7 38.3 5.4 44.1 5.5 15
 Functional reach test AIREX® (cm) 36.5 5.2 39.7 5.5 9 38.5 5.2 42.2 4.7 10 37.7 6.8 44.0 5.7 17
Dynamic steady-state balance
 Stride velocity (m/s) 1.4 0.2 1.6 0.2 8 1.5 0,2 1.6 0.2 6 1.5 0.1 1.5 0.2 6
 Stride velocity CV (%) 2.8 0,9 2.9 1.4 −3 2.8 1.0 2.3 1.3 22 2.6 0.9 2.6 0.9 2
 Stride length (cm) 146.2 13.1 152.3 14.6 4 150.2 13.7 155.9 15.7 4 147.6 10.8 152.7 13.3 3
 Stride length CV (%) 2.5 0.8 2.8 1.5 −12 2.3 0.9 2.0 1.0 17 2.2 0.6 1.9 0.7 15
 Stride width (cm) 11.5 2.6 11.6 2.8 <1 12.6 3.3 12.3 3.6 −3 11.6 2.8 11.3 2.7 −3
 Stride width CV (%) 22.6 9.8 24.7 10.8 9 26.2 11.0 29.3 11.3 12 24.1 9.9 23.9 9.5 −1
 Double support (%) 10.4 3.6 9.2 3.6 −13 10.3 3.6 9.5 3.5 −8 10.0 3.2 9.9 3.8 −1
 Double support CV (%) 11.5 6.8 13.9 13.3 −17 10.3 4.7 12.8 9.2 −20 12.2 6.5 13.9 14.1 −12
Reactive balance
 Push and release test (score) [median, IQR] 1.0 1.0 0.3 0.7 0.7 1.0 1.0 0.5 0.7 0.5 1.3 1.1 0.3 0.3 1